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principles of training There are various types of fitness training, below I have described the main ones

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Training And Fitness. Principles Of Training. There are various types of fitness training, below I have described the main ones used over a variety of sports. First of all there are anaerobic and aerobic training types. Aerobic: Increases cardiac capacity and strengthens the heart, body and lungs. It uses carbohydrates and fat as its energy source (fuel) depending on the intensity. Aerobic training involves activities such as walking, jogging, running and cycling therefore it needs little or no equipment and can be carried out anywhere. Anaerobic: it's a short lasting, high intensity activity, where the demand for oxygen from the exercise exceeds the oxygen supply. It relies on energy sources that are stored in the muscles and unlike aerobic exercise it's not dependant on oxygen from the air. It gradually helps develop stronger muscles and improved vo2 max. Furthermore, it improves the bodies resistance to waste products such as lactic acid. However, it burns fewer calories than aerobic exercise and is less beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. Steady state: This is where the sportsperson trains at a constant rate and the heart rate reaches a plateau during sub-maximal and low intensity training. The sportsperson should aim to be working at around 60% of their maximum heart rate. ...read more.


The hamstring (antagonist) is being stretched while the quadriceps and hip flexors (agonists) are holding the leg up. 2) Static (passive) : The ability to hold a stretch using body weight or another external force, e.g. holding your leg out in front of you and resting it on a chair, the quadriceps don't need to hold the extended position. 3) Ballistic: It uses a bouncing technique. It has proven to be a controversial type of stretching as it is often associated with injury. 4) Proprioceptive muscular facilitation (PNF): The most effective type of flexibility training for improving range of motion. PNF techniques can be either passive or active. 5) Dynamic stretching: Uses the speed of movement and active muscular movement. It is useful before a sporting competition and reduces muscle tightness. Arm circles and walking lunges are examples of dynamic stretching. All types of flexibility training are of great use to dancers as they need superb levels of flexibility to perform kicks/splits leaps etc. However flexibility training isn't of any use to outfield players in football and is only of little use to goalkeepers therefore it would very rarely be included in a footballers training program. In order for the above training types to be effective they must be coached in accordance with the principles of training, which are shown below. ...read more.


A dancer doesn't really have a 'season' of competition as competitions/shows run throughout the year. However, there are usually more competitions/shows from February-October and there is normally a rest period from mid December-mid January. A macro cycle involves a yearly training programme and aims regarding what the sportsperson wishes to achieve. Personally, I think that performers shouldn't just focus on a few training types for example weight lifters shouldn't just use weight and resistance methods and plyometrics. I think by only focusing on these methods a weight lifter would be putting too much pressure on certain muscles and their heart. I believe that they should involve a little of all the training types into their training programme to enable a build up of all round general fitness. Overall, I feel that circuit training is the most advantageous training type as it's the easiest to adapt for every sport and individual and can be used by any ability level. I don't think that fartlek training should be used by anyone other than athletes as it is difficult to administer and not as suitable as interval training. If a sportsperson wishes to improve speed there are other ways such as shuttle runs. Weight training and ballistic flexibility training are of little use to beginners as it's difficult to create a training programme for these methods and they should only be used when in the presence of specialist coaches of both areas. ...read more.

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