• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

principles of training There are various types of fitness training, below I have described the main ones

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Training And Fitness. Principles Of Training. There are various types of fitness training, below I have described the main ones used over a variety of sports. First of all there are anaerobic and aerobic training types. Aerobic: Increases cardiac capacity and strengthens the heart, body and lungs. It uses carbohydrates and fat as its energy source (fuel) depending on the intensity. Aerobic training involves activities such as walking, jogging, running and cycling therefore it needs little or no equipment and can be carried out anywhere. Anaerobic: it's a short lasting, high intensity activity, where the demand for oxygen from the exercise exceeds the oxygen supply. It relies on energy sources that are stored in the muscles and unlike aerobic exercise it's not dependant on oxygen from the air. It gradually helps develop stronger muscles and improved vo2 max. Furthermore, it improves the bodies resistance to waste products such as lactic acid. However, it burns fewer calories than aerobic exercise and is less beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. Steady state: This is where the sportsperson trains at a constant rate and the heart rate reaches a plateau during sub-maximal and low intensity training. The sportsperson should aim to be working at around 60% of their maximum heart rate. ...read more.

Middle

The hamstring (antagonist) is being stretched while the quadriceps and hip flexors (agonists) are holding the leg up. 2) Static (passive) : The ability to hold a stretch using body weight or another external force, e.g. holding your leg out in front of you and resting it on a chair, the quadriceps don't need to hold the extended position. 3) Ballistic: It uses a bouncing technique. It has proven to be a controversial type of stretching as it is often associated with injury. 4) Proprioceptive muscular facilitation (PNF): The most effective type of flexibility training for improving range of motion. PNF techniques can be either passive or active. 5) Dynamic stretching: Uses the speed of movement and active muscular movement. It is useful before a sporting competition and reduces muscle tightness. Arm circles and walking lunges are examples of dynamic stretching. All types of flexibility training are of great use to dancers as they need superb levels of flexibility to perform kicks/splits leaps etc. However flexibility training isn't of any use to outfield players in football and is only of little use to goalkeepers therefore it would very rarely be included in a footballers training program. In order for the above training types to be effective they must be coached in accordance with the principles of training, which are shown below. ...read more.

Conclusion

A dancer doesn't really have a 'season' of competition as competitions/shows run throughout the year. However, there are usually more competitions/shows from February-October and there is normally a rest period from mid December-mid January. A macro cycle involves a yearly training programme and aims regarding what the sportsperson wishes to achieve. Personally, I think that performers shouldn't just focus on a few training types for example weight lifters shouldn't just use weight and resistance methods and plyometrics. I think by only focusing on these methods a weight lifter would be putting too much pressure on certain muscles and their heart. I believe that they should involve a little of all the training types into their training programme to enable a build up of all round general fitness. Overall, I feel that circuit training is the most advantageous training type as it's the easiest to adapt for every sport and individual and can be used by any ability level. I don't think that fartlek training should be used by anyone other than athletes as it is difficult to administer and not as suitable as interval training. If a sportsperson wishes to improve speed there are other ways such as shuttle runs. Weight training and ballistic flexibility training are of little use to beginners as it's difficult to create a training programme for these methods and they should only be used when in the presence of specialist coaches of both areas. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Exercise and Training section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays

  1. This is my client's 6-week training programme, his main sport is volleyball and he ...

    going for the whole 16 minutes of the jogging and I did 9 minutes of cycling perfectly fine. I think my cardiovascular system is ready for a change of intensity, therefore next week I will increase the intensity at jogging from 10 to 11.5, this will increase the level of intensity but the 16 minutes will maintain the same.

  2. Personal exercise programme - Like all martial artists I feel that I am ...

    I do not wish to make any alterations either as I am coping well but still have work to do. My stretching is still suitable, I am not reacting badly to any of the exercises by feeling too strained or tired for me not to be able to train to my level at my Tae Kwon Do club.

  1. Personal exercise program

    This had a huge affect on my performance I think. I did however mange to complete all the exercise and despite the fact that I was tired. However I still feel that I completed the session well and effectively. Although I was tired I think that it was solely down

  2. Hill walking draft 1 - Aayushmaan

    Every member of the team should trust his peers, his navigators and the leader. The entire group's progress as well as enjoyment of the activity can be destroyed if there is no trust being built amongst team members. In any activity, building trust and having faith in the rest of

  1. Badminton is the sport I have chosen to train for and use my personal ...

    Flexibility Flexibility is the range of movement about a joint. By improving my flexibility I would be able to stretch further to reach the shuttle therefore making it easier to cover the full area of the court in singles and the front of the court in doubles.

  2. Fitness Programme

    after a demanding training session or game so your recovery time will improve and also improve your flexibility because of certain exercises and stretches that you will do when warming down. Warming down helps the body to remove waste products like lactic acid which remains in the muscles for longer once the pumping action of muscles contracting stops.

  1. Principles Of Training

    I will show this in my PEP because I am concentrating on improving three aspects of fitness by focussing on them in training to improve them. Overload: Fitness can only be improved through training more than you usually do. This makes the body work harder than usual, and it adapts to meet the increased demand by getting fitter.

  2. Circuit training.

    Each week i am hoping to overload my body, i can do this by three ways: * By increasing the frequency of exercise- how often i do it * By increasing the intensity of exercise- how hard i work * By increasing the time spent on the exercise- how long

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work