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GCSE: Safety Aspects and Risk Assessment
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Why are risk assessments important?
- 1 These are commonplace and a legal requirement in every sports establishment. There should be policies in place that require the completion and updating of RAs.
- 2 To create a RA, firstly spend time IN the space/environment and look around. Think, what are the ‘hazards’; what are the things that COULD go wrong here and could possibly cause a problem or harm? Don’t overlook anything – think pessimistically – what could be even the slightest hazard to people in that space?
- 3 Then, think about what could be in place as a ‘control measure’ to reduce or remove the risk of the identified hazard. These should be written and explained and put into place.
- 4 It’s important to then generate a risk rating (out of 3) for the likelihood of the hazard occurring and the severity of the hazard. Multiply these by each other for the risk rating. Values over ¾ should then be looked at again as this indicates that ‘further action’ is required to reduce the risk. If the risk rating is higher (eg: 7), then the activity should NOT take place as it is considered too dangerous with the current risks and control measures.
- 5 If the risk assessments is not completed and signed by those leading the activities, then the individuals and organization could be considered ‘negligent’ if an accident occurs. RAs can be evidence that safety has been seriously considered and action taken to make the environment and activity a safe place for all present.
- 1 Many students will have experienced some form of injury through their involvement of sport. This is a resource in itself. Discussion can reveal not only the cause and symptoms of the injury, but also the treatment of it.
- 2 It’s important to differentiate between acute and chronic injuries. Acute injuries are those that have occurred from a specific incident (eg, a sprained ankle or a fracture), whereas chronic injuries are a result of longer term activity or overuse (eg shin splints or tendonitis).
- 3 Exam questions or coursework tasks will often require you to write the cause of an injury, the symptoms it will show and how it can be treated. Make sure you include these elements to an answer.
- 4 Always remember to give examples of the injury and think about the sorts of sports or activities that this kind of injury might occur in (eg sprinters often pull their hamstrings, or tennis players often have tendonitis in the elbow – tennis elbow - from overusing these muscles / joits).
- 5 In some cases, the correct form of exercise can help avoid injuries (eg: strength training can increase joint stability and reduce the risks of dislocations and sprains).
Five safety aspects for a coach to consider
- 1 Personal Protective Equipment - When explaining how safety hazards can be reduced, remember to include the use of PPE by participants (and sometimes coaches). This is things such as gumshields, shin pads and body armour.
- 2 Qualifications – RAs should include the process of checking instructor or coach qualifications. Taking participants kayaking for eg, requires an appropriate level of instructor qualification from the National Governing Body (NGB). This MUST be checked.
- 3 Ethical factors – Ethics is simply explained as deciding what is right or wrong. Ethically, it would be wrong to knowing lead a session when there are uncontrolled dangers. It’s also ethically wrong to cause emotional harm to someone. If a participant is VERY frightened doing an activity, they should NOT be forced to do it.
- 4 Legal factors – If safety factors are NOT anticipated, the law may find you negligent and you will be accountable to the Health & Safety Executive and the law. This may result in dismissal from your job, fines or possibly a prison sentence.
- 5 Responsibilities – there are many contributing roles to maintaining safety : parents, coaches / teachers, participants. There are legal expectations too. Codes of Conduct should be in place (‘rules’ to clarify how things should be and how you should behave) and sports specifically have rules to maintain the safety of players and officials to employ them such as non-contact rules in netball and basketball. Assignments should not forget these factors.
- Marked by Teachers essays 2
It is caused by stressing the bone, commonly by violent twisting. It usually happens at all major joints such as - Shoulder, finger, thumb, elbow and ankles. The bone will be surrounded by swelling and covered in bruises and will be tender to touch. * Sprained Ligaments (over stretched ligaments) A sprain happens when a ligament or joint get overstretched and torn. Sprains occur when twisting your foot while running or other similar accidents. The sprain should be treated as a fracture if the ligament is torn because it is a lot more severe.
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The exercises should get gradually more strenuous and more like the activity performed The stretches to be done at each corner are as follows: - Lower Body Stretches * Ankle Rolls * Gastrocnemius Stretches (also soleus) * Quadriceps Stretches * Hamstrings Stretches * Groin Stretches * Anterior shin Stretch * Psoas Stretch (hamstrings) * ITB Stretch (right hip and iliotibial band) * Gluteus Maximus Stretch Central/Neck Stretches * Hip Rolls * Neck Rolls * Abdominals Stretch * Waist Reach Stretch Upper body
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The first 2 legislative factors that Im going to compare are RIDDOR and Health and safety at work act 1974. The next two I am going to compare are the Adventure Activities Licensing Authority and Fire and Safety of Places of Sport Act 1987.
Fewer accidents mean more regular earnings as you are not off ill as much. Also it means that less sickness means more money is saved by the employer and the NHS. Now i will talk about the disadvantages of both of the factors. RIDDOR's disadvantage is that the person that is in charge of reporting injuries would have a load more of paper work to do, on top of their own job. This would be a lot more time consuming as they would have to find time to fill this paperwork out then make sure that the correct procedures were used and that the problem was solved.
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Rules, regulations and legislation are really important as they provide a safe environment for both players and supporters at a football match/stadium.
Police officers surround the supporters to stop any physical or verbal abuse between rival supporters. Without crowd segregation there would be fights in the stadium all the way through the game. A turnstile is a big gate that only allows one ticket holder into the stadium at a time, .it also counts how many people go through. This is very useful incase of a fire as officials will know exactly how many people are in the building. So it's kind of like a register being called at a fire drill. Another upside of turnstiles is it only allows ticket holders to get to see the match.
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Investigate the different risks and hazards associated with sports participation. Choose 6 risks and hazards, describing and explaining them in the table below.
Also others may pressure you into doing something above your ability. Environment It is always good to take into account what the environment is like, e.g. weather, warm, cold, hard surface, bogy surface. It is important to check out what the facilities are like before exercising on them to see if they are relevant. The coach The coach may teach you the wrong technique and may set your skill level too high which means you will be competing at a higher level which you're not capable of and you may over train yourself trying to get to the skill level that has been assigned.
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However, if a risk assessment is seen to be inadequate, (the law does not expect all risks to be defined), this can make you liable, if or even if not, an accident occurs, that could have been prevented with the aid of a risk assessment. What is a Risk Assessment? Risk assessments are a step in the risk management process. Risk assessment is the determination of quantative or qualitive value of risk that relates to areas that can be controlled.
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Whereas girls tend to cooperate better and have good patience. Development of coping ability When children play matches or games there are only one winning team but there is also a losing team. When losing the children will have to cope with disappointment and have respect for teamwork and the opposing team. When winning it will teach the children to have respect for the opposing side. Improved cooperation skills A successful team will need to cooperate to do well in a competition, so when children play in a competition in a team sport the performers will need to cooperate with each other, when older they can cooperate with people and consider other peoples feelings and views.
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During those years, all East German athletes passed the testing procedures that were designed to catch "cheats." Retroactive stripping of medals has been steadfastly resisted by the IOC However, there is little difference between what the East Germans did and what the Australians and Americans are doing now. One difference is that the East Germans did not know their "little blue pills" were performance enhancing. At least the two swimming stars from Stanford know what they are doing and openly express their intentions to do so!
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An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is used to show the extent of the injury. This allows to see how bad the injury really is. Late (3rd)(6 months) Surgery is performed. The damaged ligament is removed and holes are drilled in the bone to accept the new graft. The graft replaces the old damaged ligament which would be taken from the hamstring tendon or the patella tendon. An advantage of this is that the damaged ACL is repaired. Disadvantages of this the hamstring would become shorter and the place the graft is taken from you will have to get rehab.
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Shin guards are mainly used to protect the lower leg against contact injuries. The anterior tibial border is very exposed as it only has a layer of skin over it. Repetitive blows occurring on someone not wearing shin guards can cause damage to the bone. Shin guards are also important for protecting the soft tissue of the lower leg. The lower leg is the most common site for compartment syndrome.
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If the body doesn't maintain the hearts beat it could build up to a heart attack. Footballers should also eat the right food groups to avoid consuming too much fat and too get plenty of carbohydrates. Signs and Symptoms: o Chest discomfort - usually in the centre of the chest, and may come and go. o Uncomfortable chest pressure o Chest squeezing o Chest fullness o Chest pain o Pain down left arm Hypothermia: When the body temperature drops below what is required for normal metabolism and bodily functions. When the body is exposed to cold its internal mechanisms may be unable to replenish the heat that is being lost to its surroundings.
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Fire also keeps away wild creatures, and so you can have a peace rest at night. And last of all, fire and smoke can be used for signaling very long distances. First of all, you have to understand what four things are needed to start a fire and keep it burning: 1. Fuel including wood, gasoline, coal, dried animal dung, alcohol, or other material that burns. 2. Heat, for example that initially provided by a match or rubbing two sticks together.
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This is common with sports such as tennis and golf where the tendon in the elbow is under constant use. The elbow will be very sore and it becomes almost impossible to use without difficulty. Swelling will be visible surrounding the injured tendon. Tendonitis is caused by overuse of the tendons, frequently in the lower arm in the lower arm possibly from pushing their body to the limit by training too hard Dislocation Dislocation is where the bone is pulled out of its original joint.
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The far end of the rip current usually forms a large roundish shape and is known as the head of the rip current * Look for debris r foam floating * NOTE: It is better to look for a rip, from a higher perspective 2. What steps would you advise swimmers to take if they were caught in a rip? Swimmers if they are ever caught in a rip, their first step should be to follow the three R's: Relax-stay calm, and float with the current, swim across it not against, Raise-raise an arm to signal for help and Rescue-float and wait for help.
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Health and safety at work act 1974 Under the health and safety at work act 1974, all employers have a duty of care to ensure that a safe working environment is provided which is free from anything that could cause harm or cause a risk to health or life. In this instance, the employers and employees have responsibilities. Employer responsibilities * To provide for the health, safety and welfare if all of their employees or those who work for them.
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Time must be given to regain consciousness. A spinal injury stress fracture is caused by twisting or direct stress to the bone. There is no treatment for this injury all that we can do is take the person with the injury to the hospital. The symptoms are pain in the back of the neck, swelling and bruising, redness and warmth , Tenderness to touch and numbness. This can be minimised by increasing calcium intake (calcium increases bone strength). It can also be minimised by doing strengthening exercises around the spine.
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Activity or area Hazard People at risk Likelihood of accident (1-5) Severity (1-5) Low/medium /high Measures taken to control risk. Football 5-a side slipping Players 3 2 Low-6 Ensure it is cleaned before use. collision Players 4 3 Medium-12 Big enough pitch. Netting (post falling) Players 3 5 High-15 Check safe Stand collapse Fans/crowd 1 5 Low-5 Check capacity and check if it is safe Ball hits players Players 4 2 Low-8 Low bounce/weighted Ball. Dehydration Players 3 3 Medium-9 Drink plenty if water Marking Players 2 1 Low-2 Referee Litter Players 3 3 Medium-9 Check before game We also have basketball games in our sport centre and this is a risk assessment of basketball.
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This will also help prevent injury. The next hazard I will explain is the warm up. The warm up is very important and should always be performed before playing any sport. Muscles that aren't correctly prepared tend to injure easier. The warm up should start with some light cardiovascular activities such as: * Jumping jacks * Easy jogging * Brisk walking This increases your heart rate allowing more blood to go to you muscles therefore supplying them with more oxygen so that they can work properly.
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Safety. Throughout the course of my circuit training I have to take in mind a number of safety considerations
When working at my stations I will check the equipment is safe to use and secure for e.g. when using the bench I will make sure it is stable and ready to use. I will make sure that I have listened to instructions, and seen an example of how to do the station so I can do the exercise properly, or I can view the cards which show an example of the station that I will be carrying out, and also use the equipment correctly for example not messing around with it, to avoid major injuries and to benefit from the station as much as possible.
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To prevent this, all you need to do is do a short cool down at the end of each physical activity e.g. light jog around the playing area. The long term affects of a lack of cool down is that you will be required to warm up more than usual to loosen up any tight muscles before participating in any future physical activities. Constant lack of cool down may cause you to get cramp persistently. Poor physical fitness/physique Football Pulled muscles e.g.
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Time - I will make sure that each exercise session I do is at least 20 minutes Type - I will be using weight training. Why do we warm up? We warm up to increase our heart rate, which in turn increases our blood flow to our muscles and therefore increases the oxygen to our muscles and it also gives our muscles enough oxygen to respire aerobically. It also warms up our muscles for the intensity of the session, which prevents injury.
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Head Position This shows a delivery side on. The head position of this player is kept facing the target, straight and steady at all times. Focusing on the target will provide the following things: * The delivery will ultimately go where targeted at * No possible injuries to the neck; any sudden jerks will stretch the neck muscles and sometimes will result in strains and tears * It will help in the momentum and balance in the delivery stride Speed of Shoulder Rotations If a player wants to bowl quickly, the main aspects of bowling quickly is 1.
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o Circle shoulders and arms o Stretch arms across the chest o Stretch arms behind head o Sway hips o Hamstring stretch o Quadriceps stretch o Touch toes o Shake arms and legs Main Activity (30 minutes) Song: Perfect Exceeder - Mason Vs Princess Superstar (10 minutes to teach the dance)
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You would need strength in basketball when jumping up to either defend or score. Stamina is the strength of endurance and can be mental or physical. An example of good stamina in basketball, is keeping up with the speed or to better it throughout a match. This shows you can endure and have good stamina. Basketball Warm-up Firstly, flexibility is a component of basketball. When performed on a consistent basis, a warm-up and stretching routine provides improved coordination, improved awareness and greater efficiency of muscular contractions. It is crucial to gain enough flexibility to reach higher toward the basket and increase your stride.
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My training programme will consist of two hours forty-five minutes and will include a warm-up, drills and a warm-down. WARM UP This will consist of a twenty minute pulse raiser. Jogging, sidestepping, backward jogging a small sprint will all be included in the warm up to try and minimize the risk of injury as much as possible. STRETCH Twenty minutes of dynamic and static stretching to also minimize the risk of injury. As I am looking at a goal keeper he will have to especially stretch the arms and hands.
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