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Task 4 Mechanisms of Fatigue

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Introduction

Exercise Physiology BTEC Sport and Exercise Science Project Task 4: Mechanisms of Fatigue In this assignment I will be listing the mechanisms of fatigue, including neuromuscular fatigue. I will be listing the role of metabolites, and identifying the role of oxygen and other factors in the recovery process. Neuromuscular fatigue Neural fatigue Neural fatigue means a disruption of neuromuscular events. Fatigue occurs because of a decrease in calcium production. A failure of acetylcholine generation reduces the chance of an action potential. The CNS (central nervous system) may identify fatigue prior to physiological fatigue. This stops you from doing anymore exercise to avoid you from injury, which could be muscle soreness. Muscular fatigue Muscle fatigue means a decrease of muscular performance. It is an inability to maintain the standard power output. Muscle fatigues when there is a depletion of PC stores e.g. sprinting. Therefore there is an accumulation of lactic acid and a decrease in pH. During endurance there is a depletion of energy stores, which are fat and carbohydrates. Carbon dioxide accumulation results in an increase in pH in the blood. ...read more.

Middle

If the exercise session was of a very high intensity then it will take longer to recover, however, the fitter you are the faster you will recover. The faster the debt can be repaid, the more quickly the performer can exercise again. The oxygen debt consists of two separate components: the alactacid debt and the lactacid debt. Alactacid oxygen debt is the process of recovery that does not involve lactic acid. The aerobic energy system is used to produce the ATP required to replenish the PC stores and ATP stores in the body: ADP + P + Oxygen --> ATP ATP + C + P --> PC + ADP Around 50% of the replenishment occurs during the first 30 seconds, while full recovery occurs at about three minutes. The alactacid oxygen debt ranges between 2 to 3.5 litres of oxygen. The fitter you are, the greater the debt because training increases the PC content within the muscle cells. However, the recovery time of a fitter person is reduced because they have enhanced methods of oxygen delivery such as increased capilliarisation and an improved cardio respiratory system, which will increase the rate of ATP production from the aerobic energy system. ...read more.

Conclusion

Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) Oxygen debt is occasionally called EPOC. EPOC refers to the total oxygen consumed after exercise in excess of a pre-exercise baseline level. EPOC occurs when a person exercises at high intensity, when oxygen cannot be supplied by the anaerobic energy systems, which results in lactic acid production. When the person stops exercising, extra oxygen is breathed in order to break down lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water, to replenish ATP, phosphocreatine and glycogen, and to pay back any oxygen that has been borrowed from haemoglobin and myoglobin. Training and its effect on fatigue Training has the effect of increasing the body's ability to exercise for longer without tiring. However, it is necessary to carry out specific training in order to ensure the body adapts to the type of exercise an athlete is competing in, i.e. a marathon runner would have to run persistently for long distances in order to adapt their body to increase the aerobic production of ATP. A sprinter, on the other hand, would have to train anaerobically in order to increase their tolerance to lactic acid and increase their PC stores. ?? ?? ?? ?? BTEC National Award in Sport & Exercise Science Priya Sethi Exercise Physiology Page 1 of 4 Task 4 ...read more.

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