• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

WORK AND EMPLOYMENT

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

ANALYSING SKILL INTRODUCTION Skills are crucial for determining the status and pay of occupations and professions, it is also central to the structure of employment and influences gender divisions in society. It is therefore, important to firstly analyse how we come to define skills before we come next week to analyse skill changes in the contemporary workplace. CONCEPTUALISING SKILL An analysis of skill remains one of the most contentious areas of debate in the social sciences. The study of skill integrates an examination of:- 1) the person 2) the job 3) the setting Cynthia Cockburn's (1983) study of print workers distinguishes between the person, the job and the setting. 1) SKILL IN THE PERSON Refers to the individual and therefore involves a number of different attributes including, dexterity and knowledge. This definition views skill as being accumulated over time through education, qualifications, training and experience. This approach is pursued mainly by economists and is typified in the human capital approach. In this definition, it is the individual who is responsible for increasing their human capital and therefore their own job opportunities Criticisms 1) Inequalities - There is an inherent assumption in this theory that everyone has the equal ability to increase their human capital 2) Changing context of work - The skill in the person may remain but it is the economic and technical context which determines the value of the skill. ...read more.

Middle

Workers therefore 'talk up' the skilled nature of their work. * 'weak' stresses that most jobs have significant skills but this is only recognised as such by the ability of workers to define them as such. So the technical skills are merely a starting point but does not guarantee the occupation a skilled status because the occupational group must enact social closure. Although thus far we have concentrated on occupational groups, it is the example of gender which illustrates most vividly the way skills are socially constructed. Further, this raises important issues concerning equality. GENDER AND SKILL Social closure also refers to the way men as a social group have mobilised their interests over women in the labour market, so that what we define as skills have been constructed to benefit men and disadvantage men. There is now a range of evidence which substantiates this claim, especially the work of dual systems theorists and those academics who view gendering as significant for understanding social processes such as skill construction. Phillips and Taylor (1986) stress that, 'it is the qualities of the worker rather than the skill content of the work that is important in deeming women's work as unskilled; 'women workers carry into the workplace their status of subordinate individuals and this status comes to define the value of the work they do' (1986: 55). ...read more.

Conclusion

Example - Collinson and Knights's (1986) research into the insurance industry indicated the importance of examining management perceptions in the creation and reproduction of sex-typed work. As well as reinforcing the sexual division of labour through their employment practices, management are also involved in under-valuing women's work - Why? * Financial Incentive * Social Values * Customer Expectations * Social relations Research into Royal Mail (Jenkins et al 2002) illustrated the way management and unions have acted together to sustain a sex-typed workplace. However, changes in the organisation have challenged these practices and there is a tension between workers and managers - men have lost their political and material resources to sustain the workplace as a male domain. In these cases, ideological resources were used to demarcate the territory as male. CONCLUSION It is apparent that there are many ways in which we can analyse skill. It is argued here that as well as the person and the job we need to take into account the ways in which skills are socially constructed - taking account of political, ideological and material processes by which some groups have enacted social closure. It is important to recognise the diversity in analysing skills because of the crucial important skill has in defining the status of the job and in role definitions of skill has in perpetuating the sexual division of labour. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Exercise and Training section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays

  1. P.E - analysis of preformance

    exciting R I will keep a record of her progress FITT Frequency-Elly will have 5 training sessions this week. Intensity-Elly will have to do a lot of swimming for this drill; therefore she will have to work quite hard. Time-She will spend about an hour a day on this drill.

  2. physical education.

    need to space out all your equipment and do it in small groups so you don't bump into each other and cause a injure. Also stretch off before you do any of the stations. Interval training - You need a flat surface.

  1. The Pure Theory of Law

    Flexibility is required in the game of Gaelic football in order to the pick the ball of the ground. Flexibility in the ankle joint is also required while soloing. * Speed This is the ability to put body parts into motion quickly or to the maximum rate that a person can move over a specific distance.

  2. The skills and techniques required for an opening bowler in Cricket is the knowledge ...

    It is after the feet have landed. The body/feet must not be twisted and the arm must be as high above the body as possible without forcing the head to fall out of the action. Follow Through This must go with the natural flow of momentum. It must go straight over the front foot with a straight

  1. Pdhpe revision Notes

    An STD is a disease which is passed from one person to another by any kind of sex. STD (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) Anyone who has sex can get a STD. Symptoms include: * Unusual discharge from the vagina, penis, or anus.

  2. positive and negative influences on participation

    There are some downsides to being a top class female athlete. Top class female athletes don't get paid as much as men. Also many professional sports still have no organised women's events and when they do, these events are not as widely publicised as the men's events.

  1. Sport Studies

    This type of exercise will improve your agility, and can also replace a warm-up drill. Speed is the rate of movement of the body, limb or external object. This links together with agility as you require moving quickly and precisely to the shuttle at all times.

  2. Tennis Research Paper

    This is beneficial to the heart, because the heart has to work and adjust under these varying conditions, as well as the muscles from of varied muscle involvement involved in the game. Balance is enhanced through serving and hitting shots from various spots around the court.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work