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- Peer Reviewed essays 6
His ideas outline radical distinction between good and bad, and describe a fundamental characteristic of the human nature, which is the will to freedom and independence. Even Machiavelli points out that a conquered city needs to be destroyed because "such a city justifies itself by calling on the name of liberty and its ancient institutions, never forgotten despite the passing of time and the benefits received from the new ruler" (Machiavelli 1995: 16). He also says "there is no surer way of keeping possession than by devastation".
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Interest Aggregation means the process by which a party brings together various viewpoints on an issue. A party develops enough common ideas among enough people so that pressure can be brought to bear upon the political system. Interest Communication is the basic function of a political party to engage regularly with the public at large, educate and persuade it about the merits and demerits of what its government is doing or not doing. Political parties in India today have to simultaneously attend multiple tasks.
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I will also look at the idea behind a "dominant party system", and why these arguments would be attributed to Britain including arguments of class, gender and religion. In "The Modern British Party System" Paul Webb says that between 1945 and 1970 there is a 'clear-cut...'two-partism". He comes to this conclusion, he says, by a formula developed by Markku Laakso and Rein Taagepera (1979) in which you calculate '"on the basis of party share of the popular vote (the effective number of electoral parties [ENEP]...and the basis of shares of seats won in parliament (the effective number of parliamentary parties [ENPP]4."'
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Outline the principal sources of authority available to US presidents. How similar is executive leadership in the US to executive leadership in parliamentary systems?
The true nature of the Presidency; and the powers endowed to the occupant of the White House; is actually a lot more complicated than it appears on the surface. It may seem that the directly elected president who holds such a strong position and image in world politics is ensured a smooth passage to achieving the policies they want to. However, whilst a lot of the resources of power expected to be possessed by someone of such a high global standing are enjoyed by the American President, there are constraints to which a successful election guarantees political dominance.
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Near the end of WWI the majority of women had high hopes for the future. Nevertheless, although they thought they had managed to secure themselves with a comfortable job and income, working on the trams and in the factories things drastically changed. As soon as men returned from the war, women were forced aside. Perhaps if a substantial amount of women had protested, a social revolution could have occurred and women could have secured occupational work earlier. Even so, Ray Strachey expresses how women were scrutinized for seeking job security "if women went on working it was from a sort of deliberate wickedness" (N.
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With the 1932 Reform Act, they had won over many people as a result of nationwide confrontation with the Tories and the House of Lords. However, this was under Earl Grey - his successor, Lord Melbourne relaxed the reformation programme. Also, during their last few years as the ruling government, the Whigs lost opportunities to improve social conditions in towns and working conditions in factories. There was also the fact that they did not resolve the issue of Free Trade until 1941.
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All the demonstrators wanted was political freedom, but Deng dismissed this idea. And even today, people who campaign for democracy are giving a harsh punishment. Usually a long jail sentence as shown in the articles on Wang Dan by Graham Hutchings. The source tells us that the mood was entirely peaceful over the two week long demonstration. It also tells us about the 'cruel end' of the demonstration. On 4 June the protestors were crushed by tanks and shot at by soldiers.
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This link can be explained partly in terms of social class and also as a result of labours image as a party taking an interest in the problems and issues facing black Britons. o Geography - traditionally the conservative party has been more popular in the south of England outside London while the labour party has been more popular in the north of England and Scotland. In the may 1997 general election this divide became more marked as the conservative party lost all of its ten seats in Scotland.
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This situation would not really suit anybody as it would make it very hard for anything to be changed. If this happens, it won't be for the first time. In the past, the opposition has gained the majority of the popular vote and still lost- this happened in '50, '51 and '74. Until the system is changed votes will continue to be wasted and majorities not necessarily needed to win power. After the election, Gordon Brown would probably struggle to make the kind of impact he would like. The Conservatives would do all they could to stop Labour legislation and reform.
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In what ways were the lives of South Africans changed by the policy of apartheid in the 1950's, 1960's and the 1970's
It forced all black men living in 'white' areas to carry a pass or a reference book containing personal details including their racial group. Without a pass, living and working in a 'white' area was illegal. Renewing a pass often involved waiting in queues for days outside the government offices. This much hated law was strictly enforced by police raids. The South Africans, including many of the whites as well as the blacks, became very frustrated with having to carry a pass book around because they felt as if they were owned.
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While various methods in political research limit respondent's reaction to a certain topic, interviews are not as superficial or as limiting the reaction. For instance, survey limits the respondent's answers and only produces statistical data, whereas an elite interview provides profound information that correlates to the process of power in political machine. Tim May emphasises on the richness of the interview method within political research by stating that "interviews yield a rich insight into people's biographies, experiences, opinions, values, aspirations, attitudes and feelings" (May, 2001:120).
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To what extent can the failure of the Fascist Movement to challenge the existing U.K. political system be attributed to poor strategy and leadership?
Labour catered for working classes who were not radicalized enough to be withdrawn from their trade unions and Conservatives appealed to the upper classes. In contrast to this the BUF were a new type of party far from normal political culture with an anti-democratic ideology and authoritarianism alienating potential support. Fascisms inability to challenge the government was because essentially it was 'foreign', as historian Benewick put it. Britain also had 'two safety valves', firstly the peoples absolute worship was towards the monarchy rather than potentially corrupted politicians, secondly those with extreme views had been distanced from Britain itself and towards its empire where they could control 'lesser breeds' without restriction.
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To what extent was Northumberland more successful in solving mid Tudor political problems than Somerset?
Northumberland's foreign policy was not glorious, however, in many respects he was far more successful than Somerset. His realism and insight, perhaps the result of his military background, made him remarkable and able in his handling of foreign policy. During Somerset's time there was rising popular discontent over the worsening economic conditions and it was feared this might lead to popular uprisings, but Somerset was uncertain how to tackle the economic problems. Somerset introduced The Chantries Act of 1547, he sent commissioners out to collect all the gold and silver plate attached to the Chantries this was then melted down to make coins.
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How important was the opposition of other countries in bringing apartheid in South Africa to an end?
The reasons for why this is the main cause will be explained in the conclusion of this essay. I will be looking at the economic, international, political and social causes for the collapse and whether they were long, short or immediate causes. An immediate cause of the collapse of Apartheid in 1994 was the replacement of P.W. Botha with F.W. De Klerk as President of South Africa. On his first big speech on 2nd February 1989 De Klerk shocked everyone by announcing drastic changes to the National Party. He legalised the ANC, the PAC the SACP and he released hundreds of political prisoners which included Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu.
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To what extent has Germany's party system evolved from a multi-party system to a 2 Block system in recent years?
The central features of the Federal Republic were based upon four key principles which had been outlined by the United States, the United Kingdom and France. It was an important belief that all German political lives should be de-Nazified. The second of the key principles was that Germany should be demilitarised in order to prevent the possibility of another war being waged. It can be argued that this was considered to be "the best means of preventing the revival of a strong, aggressive Germany."1 Thirdly the allies wanted to make Germany a democratic society therefore allowing the whole of German society to have fair representation in government.
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Critically evaluate/assess the achievements of Sergei Witte and their consequences for the social groups in Tsarist Russia up to 1906.
This in turn allowed Russia to achieve some of its modernization of its 'backwards' economy. With these it created setbacks for Russia's people had high interest rates which were adopted as to attract foreign investors with an offer of a good return. In January 1897, Witte placed Russia on the gold standard which is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold and all currency issuance is to one degree or another regulated by the gold supply. He called this ``one of the greatest successes in the peaceful cultural development of mankind.''
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Did Democracy Survive in Britain in the 1930's as a Result of the Policies of the National Government?
major task the Government was trying to overcome, as at the beginning of the decade there were two and a half million people still unemployed, and Government spending was at an all time high. After the collapse of the Labour Government under Ramsay MacDonald, National Government was formed under him in August 24th 1931. This in its self could be seen as undemocratic as in a true democracy, the people elect a Government, but in this instance, this Government was chosen by a select cabinet of ministers, but ended up with the majority of the Government being made up of Conservatives.
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The queen also retains the right to ensure her government carries on, if circumstances call for this measure. It is only the queen who retains the power to discontinue a session of parliament. Despite the Sovereign having several residual rights, which can be used against the government of the day, the likelihood of any of these rights being exercised is very limited. The House of Commons is a key part of the legislative process of British politics and indeed one of its main roles is to scrutinise government policies and examine and react to government actions. In politics there are two conflicting interpretations of the way in which power flows; the first of which is the 'Westminster model,' which claims power flows from the electorate to parliament whom chooses and controls the executive.
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'Nationalist Groups in the Sub-Continent played the most significant role in Britain's decision to carry independence to India in 1947'
However, their complete insensitivity to and distance from the peoples of India and their customs created such disillusionment with them in their subjects that the end of British rule became necessary and inevitable. There was also an ideological divide between the Muslims and the Hindus of India. While there were strong feelings of nationalism in India, by the late 19th century there were also communal conflicts and movements in the country that were based on religious communities rather than class or regional ones.
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Why did the Conservative Party split in 1846? - Ed Pearson When Peel announced that he supported a repeal of the Corn Laws that protected the landed classes it
It has been suggested by certain historians such as J.A Thomas that the split over the repeal generally was a class battle between the business and manufacturing classes who tended to favour repeal and the landed classes who tended to be against it due to the relative personal economic benefits that it would bring. However Professor Aydelotte disputes this, removing the issue of class; although he agrees with Thomas that there were a higher proportion of votes among non-landed members than among landed for repeal.
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Iraq, but the BBC also expressed severe doubts towards certain aspects of the dossier, for example its 45-minute clause, regarding the imminent threat that Iraq could launch weapons of mass destruction at the mere push of a button. In the search for media independence we stumble upon the growing concern that the British government is misinforming its population via the mainstream media. We must first analyse how the government deals with the press's corporate interests that stimulate competition for circulation, and Blair's fascination with spin, his public image and his governments harnessing of arguably the most influential and ruthless of press Barons, Rupert Murdoch.
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Women who did work in this period were working class doing low paid menial jobs. Middle and upper class women were expected to stay at home, and if a women working the same job as a man she would be paid less for it. Considering women were viewed as domesticated property, exploited for sex and used to work for low wages it is understandable women failed to gain the vote between 1900 and 1914 with these anti-feminist views. Furthermore in the early 1900's getting women suffrage depended on the government's support and at this time all the members of government and parliament were male.
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Modern History shows great example of China or Iran, where people's view are not the one's that are accounted. Locke defines society as more important than government, but he doesn't give an account if the society is corrupt, what happens to the government, does it have to be corrupt to. Back in 1700's many prisoners were sent from the mainland UK to the Australia, so from a Lockean perspective the Australian government would had to be formed by the influence of the people that are against the law, and if that is the case, how can the people that are against the law, obey the law is a big question.
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Any discrepancy between the two parties would become the new focus of British politics, where even a loss to the liberal democrats would be preferable to the threat posed by the old conservative party. NEW TRENDS To do this Labor must continue to take advantage of new voter trends by monopolizing the issues of the 21st Century. The first step toward this is understanding the new and complex nature of British politics. Party support is no longer dominated by economic division and can no longer be defined by regional support.
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He forced himself to review all documents personally, a huge undertaking for the ruler of an empire the size of his, and communication was therefore extremely slow. The king worked alone in his small office late into the night, giving his decisions or just as often, deferring them. He spent an enormous amount of time "signing letters, licences, patents and other affairs of grace and justice: on some days amounting to over 2,000 documents". Yet all his contemporaries agreed that his methods dangerously, and sometimes fatally, slowed down a system of government already notorious for its dilatoriness.
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