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GCSE: Politics

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  1. Referendums. Although Referendums can provide clear decisive answers on difficult political issues, they also have many disadvantages to them.

    2/ 3 referendums that occurred in the UK in recent years were on the Devolution of Power to Wales (1997), the Good Friday Agreement for Northern Ireland (1998) and the Devolution of Power to Scotland (1997). All produced different outcomes, and different circumstances surrounded each one. The Devolution of Power to Wales was a Pre-legislative referendum in 1997. There was only a 50.1 % turnout, suggesting voter apathy and a lack of knowledge or interest in the subject. The result was extremely indecisive with votes for yes narrowly surpassing those for no (YES: 50.3% -NO: 49.7%).

    • Word count: 1092
  2. Free essay

    Why has Britain changed in the 20th century?

    Also, the democracy in Asia and Africa forced Britain to speedily hand back power. I believe the main reason Britain lost the majority of its Empire in the 20th century was due to the fact that they could not cope with trying to limit the demand for independence, and with both wars, it seemed easier by the end of the century to just hand back land. The wars were the main reason why Britain's Foreign Policy had changed as well. In 1914, most of Britain's policy was based around its empire and control of the seas.

    • Word count: 1139
  3. To what extent can south africa be described as a one party state ?

    When the New National Party collapsed in 2005 it made the ANC even stronger as they had one less opposition but the New National Party actually merged with the ANC to give them more dominance in the fact that the NNP have them more ideas to develop as a party, this also made them stronger in parliament with over 70% of the seats. People have commented on the fact that the ANC has became a "cannibal of the opposition" meaning that they have become so dominant, that the opposition parties have no chance to challenge for their party to be in government.

    • Word count: 629
  4. Multicultural Britain

    When investigating the reasons why people choose, and chose, to migrate, one must consider the push and pull factors. Push factors are matters that force individuals from a place. They include things such as difficult living conditions, government persecution, or discrimination. Pull factors are conditions that draw people to a new place. Pull factors include good economic forecast, family members and fellow compatriots who have migrated there which promises a smooth beginning in the new place. From 1880 most of the migration to Britain was that of the Jews from Eastern Europe, mainly Russia. Many left to escape the persecution and find an enhanced living abroad.

    • Word count: 1795
  5. Is Britain a two-party or a multi party system, or something else?

    I will also look at the idea behind a "dominant party system", and why these arguments would be attributed to Britain including arguments of class, gender and religion. In "The Modern British Party System" Paul Webb says that between 1945 and 1970 there is a 'clear-cut...'two-partism". He comes to this conclusion, he says, by a formula developed by Markku Laakso and Rein Taagepera (1979) in which you calculate '"on the basis of party share of the popular vote (the effective number of electoral parties [ENEP]...and the basis of shares of seats won in parliament (the effective number of parliamentary parties [ENPP]4."'

    • Word count: 2299
  6. Free essay

    Outline the principal sources of authority available to US presidents. How similar is executive leadership in the US to executive leadership in parliamentary systems?

    The true nature of the Presidency; and the powers endowed to the occupant of the White House; is actually a lot more complicated than it appears on the surface. It may seem that the directly elected president who holds such a strong position and image in world politics is ensured a smooth passage to achieving the policies they want to. However, whilst a lot of the resources of power expected to be possessed by someone of such a high global standing are enjoyed by the American President, there are constraints to which a successful election guarantees political dominance.

    • Word count: 2289
  7. Free essay

    Women's contribution to the war

    Near the end of WWI the majority of women had high hopes for the future. Nevertheless, although they thought they had managed to secure themselves with a comfortable job and income, working on the trams and in the factories things drastically changed. As soon as men returned from the war, women were forced aside. Perhaps if a substantial amount of women had protested, a social revolution could have occurred and women could have secured occupational work earlier. Even so, Ray Strachey expresses how women were scrutinized for seeking job security "if women went on working it was from a sort of deliberate wickedness" (N.

    • Word count: 2414
  8. Free essay

    Consider the view that the liberal government reforms 1906-1914 were more concerned with the maintenance of Edwardian society than its radical overhaul

    some reforms did reach extremely far reaching measures, making it easy to understand why one would come to the opinion that the acts passed were those of radical sincerity. Other problems are that when researching reform bills passed there have only been a selected few mentioned. If each reform passed in this period was to be investigated the question proposed for discussion would greatly exceed the expected words of the essay. To establish authenticity to the view that the liberal government reforms were acts of maintaining Edwardian society this essay will include information on vital events leading up to each reform that I feel is of great significance for the validity of the essay.

    • Word count: 3229
  9. Appeasement courswerrk

    This was as the rational reasoning behind appeasement. Britain was alone, there once dependable allies had deserted them. USA was economically unhinged from the Wall Street crash in 1929 (causing the Great Depression within Britain); subsequently they isolated themselves from Europe to help reinstate their financial superiority. France had become increasingly weak with mounting destruction with 11 governments from 1932-35 therefore making their militarily weak. The British public believed Hitler's anti-communist approach would help oppose Stalinism with the government fearing communism more than Nazism.

    • Word count: 527
  10. How far were the Anti Corn Law League responsible for Peel's repeal of the Corn Laws?

    The Corn Laws protected the land interest of the elite and therefore the campaign of repeal through economic reform, would lift social distress as those ready to acknowledge and break this social divide would be placated .in an age when each class knew their place in society. Industrialists agreed as the Corn Laws meant that wages had to rise to keep pace with the price of bread. They shared the belief that repeal meant cheaper bread, lower wages, increased trade and thus greater profits.

    • Word count: 1430
  11. Description of a few canidates for '08 election

    He believes in home schooling and the protection of our privacy from the government by putting a stricter limit on what personal data can be recorded. I think Ron Paul has a strong candidacy and I agree with a lot of his principals. I especially like his want of our troop back. However, I am pro-choice so our ideals clash there. Even if one doesn't share the same political views of Hillary Clinton then they should at least respect her.

    • Word count: 555
  12. To What Extent Was Peel's Reorganisation of the Tory Party responsible for the election victory of 1841?

    However, with Peel's dynamism and his innovative policies, he was able to "turn the Tory Party of one particular class into the Conservative Party of the nation". Peel operated a policy of constructive opposition, offering amendments to legislation. Employing a new style of politics, he faced contentious issues constructively as leader of the Conservatives. In December 1834 Peel presented his Tamworth Manifesto. It aimed to portray the new 'Conservative' party as one geared for necessary progress to remedy "proven abuses".

    • Word count: 1428
  13. Conservative Victory of 1941, Peel and the Weakness of the Whigs.

    With the 1932 Reform Act, they had won over many people as a result of nationwide confrontation with the Tories and the House of Lords. However, this was under Earl Grey - his successor, Lord Melbourne relaxed the reformation programme. Also, during their last few years as the ruling government, the Whigs lost opportunities to improve social conditions in towns and working conditions in factories. There was also the fact that they did not resolve the issue of Free Trade until 1941.

    • Word count: 2604
  14. How does British Airways affect the government?

    These people would be happy and it would be easy for them to get good jobs. Unemployment levels would decrease immensely and the government would receive even more income tax from the people. The government would also become popular once the people see how much the public services sector has improved. This can help the government to receive more votes and will also improve the country's economy. However, if the opposite happened and British Airways did not manage to make healthy profits, taxes paid to the government would decrease and employment levels would fall. The government would then have to pay more benefits and will lose support because they wouldn't be investing enough on the public services sector.

    • Word count: 1004
  15. 1998 Ice Storm

    Temperatures reached below 0 and with it came high wind pressures. Thousands of people suffered from hypothermia as well as a shortage of foods due to power outages resulting in no heat in homes. There had been 25 deaths of hypothermia and over 600 000 people in parts of Eastern Canada were having to leave there homes to move into shelters for safety, warmth and food. The ice storm even caused over $500 million dollars worth of property damage in parts of Eastern Canada. It took 72 hours before the Canadian government realized the Great Ice Storm was going to be as savior as it was.

    • Word count: 648
  16. Assess the reason why the Italian people were so disillusioned with the liberal government after World War 1

    How Italy coped in the war made people lose face, as although they were on the winning side of the war, Italy's personal outcome had made the war feel in vain. The major reason to why the Italian people became disillusioned with the government was the economic situation. Not only was it a major problem itself but also led to consequences that followed which made things for the government worse as they failed to amend the problems. The war was expensive for Italy, the cost of supplying its soldiers with food and equipment necessary was proven to be a very expensive task for the treasury, so Italy had been forced to borrow large amount of monies from its allies.

    • Word count: 1024
  17. Tiananmen Square

    All the demonstrators wanted was political freedom, but Deng dismissed this idea. And even today, people who campaign for democracy are giving a harsh punishment. Usually a long jail sentence as shown in the articles on Wang Dan by Graham Hutchings. The source tells us that the mood was entirely peaceful over the two week long demonstration. It also tells us about the 'cruel end' of the demonstration. On 4 June the protestors were crushed by tanks and shot at by soldiers.

    • Word count: 2352
  18. How successful was Peel's Ministry 1841-1846?

    Peel's financial reforms were the most important reasons for its success despite their unpopularity in some sections of the party. In 1941 he inherited �7million of debt from the Whig government before him, but through a selection of significant reforms, most notably the '1842 Budget' he was able to boast a �5million surplus by the end of 1865. Much of the financial reform that Peel's ministry passed could be considered as social reform too, which was very important in improving the conditions for people in Britain.

    • Word count: 1743
  19. Describe the Stages in Which Germany Changed From an Authoritarian to a Democratic Republic 1918/19

    The second reason was to pass the blame for defeat away from the Generals who had ruled as a military dictatorship during the later stages of the war to the new civilian government. The new civilian government led by Prince Max of Baden including Socialists and Liberals which has the support of the Reichstag was formed before Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated. As the war ended it become obvious to many fractions of German society that the new civilian government would have limited power because the Kaiser still held his office.

    • Word count: 823
  20. Question A: Why Did The British Government Decide To Evacuate Children In The Early Years Of The Second World War?

    The bombing in WW1 had scared people, but more recently people had seen clips in the cinema of the bombing in Guernica. The images of dead women and children were particularly shocking, as censorship had ensured that the general public did not see the horrors of WW1. The RAF was the newest force and didn't want to lose their independence hence they exaggerated the impact of bombing on civilians. Sir Hugh Trenchard, the founder of the RAF, was instrumental in promoting the RAF as an essential participant in the war.

    • Word count: 685
  21. The failure of Chartism was due to improved economical conditions rather than the movement's own lack of unity

    Leading historian Edward Royle is quoted as saying: "Chartism was fired by economical discontent". This I believe was the most important factor in the collapse of the chartist movement as chartist activity was strongest in areas where domestic industries were in decline however as conditions were improved in these areas support for Chartism dropped. To counter the economic distress at the time and to improve trade Prime Minister Robert Peel introduced a series of reforms like the repealing of the Corn Laws in 1846 and Mines Act of 1842, as a result food consumption increased as did wages.

    • Word count: 1158
  22. Pressure Groups

    Most pressure groups gain attention from marches and also from civil disobedience. Some pressure groups work so closely with political parties and government which is difficult to distinguish between their roles. This is also another reason how a political party differs from a pressure group. Also every policy matters for a political party, they must consider what they do and make sure they get the best for the country (try and better another party). Unlike political parties, pressure groups do not try and better each other, there is no competition.

    • Word count: 963
  23. Free essay

    Why keep the Cons. in the 1960s

    A new form of media had just began, which would now benefit politics, if used effectively. 'super-Mac', was able to use this to his advantage, 'Mac-wonderful' was increasing Conservative likeability in the public eye. Macmillan had entered the 1959 general election in a very strong position, there was a consumer boom and Labour was still suffering from internal feuding and in particular from disagreements over Britain's independent nuclear deterrent. Even though, becoming Prime Minister in such difficult circumstances'. Macmillan proved to be on of the most successful of all conservative leaders, which could be said, may be down mostly to luck, down to the failure of the Labour Party.

    • Word count: 1273
  24. Personalities not policies

    In 1959 he also attempted to change party policy on nationalization (Clause IV). Gaitskell was also in conflict with his party over his opposition to unilateral nuclear disarmament. Gaitskell suddenly died in 1963; many regarded him as "the great lost leader of the party". Harold Wilson took on the position of leader of the Labour Party, successful in second attempt, after trying to stop Gaitskell unsuccessfully, in 1960. The successor of Gaitskell, Harold Wilson, and his down-to-earth image made him seem much more in touch with modern society than Conservative opponents.

    • Word count: 1016
  25. Politics and Power notes on the UK system

    o Writing to our MP, Member of the European Parliament (MEP) or local councillor. o Writing to the press. o Freedom of speech. However some factors of Britain's political system are not democratic which are shown by: o An unelected House of Lords. o A hereditary monarchy. o Britain doesn't have a bill of rights. A dictatorship is when political power is in the hands of a dictator, a ruler with absolute authority. Obedience is based on coercion and threats rather then legal authority. An example of this is Hitler in Nazi Germany or Stalin in Communist Russia. The state refers to the various institutions that organize and regulate society.

    • Word count: 1769

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