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GCSE: Politics

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  1. Why was there popular discontent between 1815-1822? How was it expressed and did the government deal with it successfully?

    Also, with the end of the war came the end of the war economy. Vast industries that had fuelled the campaign were drastically scaled down or stopped altogether. Labour intensive industries (at the time nearly everything,) such as uniform makers, iron smelters and musket manufacturers were all forced to lay off many workers. This increase in unemployment was extremely damaging as it had the knock on effect of giving ordinary people less money to spend on goods, sending manufacturing into an endless downward spiral.

    • Word count: 1745
  2. How effectively does Parliament carry out its functions?

    This, therefore, hinders Parliament's effectiveness as a legislative forum independent from the executive as the executive almost automatically has the support needed to pass laws. Parliament should also scrutinize and debate the laws and policies that are being proposed and any important events that are occurring, but whether this is very effective is doubtful. There are select committees and standing committees to scrutinize and investigate the activities of the government, but these generally support the Government's proposals. A crucial function of Parliament is to legitimize what the government has done, because the government has gone through the "proper channels".

    • Word count: 920
  3. How Powerful is British prime minister?

    Almost 100 years later, when Richard Crossman edited "the English Constitution he was able to state that the doctrine of cabinet government had itself been replaced by one of prime ministerial government.. Later in his diaries Crossman was able to develop his original theory that the PM dominated the decision making process. The PMs powers have grown over the last 100 years for a variety of reasons: the growth of the franchise has placed the elected government in a position of greater authority; the development of national party organisations after 1870 has tended to exalt the position of party leaders as leaders of mass parties and government itself has increased in both size and complexity.

    • Word count: 795
  4. How effective is Parliament? The effectiveness of Parliament can only be ascertained by evaluating individually each measure set up within Parliament to scrutinise government.

    This allows the ministers to prepare their answers in advance, which means they could prepare answers that avoid the main point. Also the party whips give MP's of the ruling party question to ask that do not really serve a purpose i.e. Why do you think your policy worked well? This demeans the whole point of question time. Secondly, the opposition. The official opposition is the party with the second largest number of seats within the House of Commons. They are in essence an alternative government to the ruling party.

    • Word count: 857
  5. To what extent would such a claim truly reflect the relative importance of parties and pressure groups in communicating opinions in the 1990s?

    Theoretically, the parliamentary system offers every citizen representation by their MP. MPs, although relatively unsung heroes in most cases, try their best to represent the views of their constituents. Also, whereas pressure groups rely on the media to cover them and thus to gain influence, political parties will always enjoy publicity as they are the decision-makers. This question fails to include the most important means of communication between the public and the government: the media. Is it suggesting the media is a pressure group, and would their membership figures therefore be measured by viewing figures or newspaper sales?

    • Word count: 1185
  6. Why has the membership of the major political parties declined in recent years? Do you expect this trend to continue?

    The huge increase in floating voters may have something to do with this decline as well. Evans (1997) suggests another possibility, rather than people not participating in politics, this generation has shifted from party politics to supporting pressure groups. A politically apathetic electorate would have no interest in politics; therefore they would not join political parties. This state of mind has increased dramatically, possibly as a result of the move by the major parties in their stances. Moves, initially, by the Labour Party but subsequently by the Conservatives have left very little distinction between the parties.

    • Word count: 1140
  7. The grievances of Quebec's ties to the rest of Canada are deeply rooted, but not until 1995 did many Canadians realize the strenuous state of our Country;

    The protective nature of the Canadian government during the depression also led to a negative increase in French nationalism; By raising tariff walls, Canada was isolated from foreign trade and was forced to further industrialize in an attempt to become self sufficient. In doing this, the major cities in Ontario and Quebec were met with an onslaught of lower class men hoping to take part in the low paying industrial work available. This led to an increase of slums and due to the Quebec government's policy of Laissez Faire much of the provinces wealth was held by the upper few percentage.

    • Word count: 762
  8. "The first World War killed the Liberal Party" how far do you agree with this statement?

    The reduced support for the Liberal party as the war progressed, however, did begin to provide evidence for this opinion. As the war began to last longer than ever imagined, the people in England felt dashed rising expectations because they had been told it would end quickly. The introduction of conscription in 1916 further caused upset among the people and this cumulated into a feeling of resentment to the 'Liberal' government who had brought them into the war. Therefore, the reduced electoral support for the party after the war is perhaps a reflection of this resentment and the statement can be verified.

    • Word count: 2300
  9. British Government and the Constitution "Government without a Constitution is power without a right."

    Whigs stood for reform, the supremacy of parliament over the Monarchy and for limiting of royal powers. This early fascism was partly responsible for Equity and Common law to be blurred by the Judicature Acts of the nineteenth century. It was at this time that a very different miscellany of Tories were upholding Crown, Church and Constitution. At this stage we are left with a theory of government that balances on two principles, The Monarchy and parliamentary rule. John Locke, in his book On Civil Government 1689 described our constitution thus: The Monarch, Parliament and the Judicature, the Monarch and parliament acting in (supposed)

    • Word count: 929
  10. Why did Labour win the 2001 election?

    The conservatives still had the legacy of Margaret Thatcher and John Major to live up to. In 92-97, John Major had arguably ruined the British economy, and Margaret Thatcher had annoyed many of the working class. A large majority of people still remembered these days and were eager not to have the conservatives in power again, for example, the Labour Party ran a poster campaign that depicted William Hague's head with Margaret Thatcher's earrings and hair. The slogan ran "Get out and vote Or they get in".

    • Word count: 1868
  11. How far do these sources support the view that the General Strike was not an industrial dispute?

    Some argued that the entire idea of a 'General Strike' in itself made it a political act against the nation. Notably Sir John Simon in Source D goes so far as to say; 'A strike is a strike against employers to compel employers to do something, but a General Strike is a strike against the general public' some, including the Prime Minister went further than this to call the general strike an 'attack'. Baldwin's speech has the tone of someone who is preparing for a war.

    • Word count: 719
  12. Why did the Weimar Republic face political problems in the first years of its existence (1919-1923)

    The reason for the Spartacist revolution was because they felt betrayed by SPD party who were in government. These two parties were one before the war but they split over the argument of war support. The members of the SPD supported military action before the war and the Spartacus members were against it. This caused problems between the two halves of the party and they split. Seeing as the SPD were the more popular party, they seized power after the war; both the Spartacists and the SPD were for a democratic government but the Spartacists felt that the SPD were not democratic enough.

    • Word count: 663
  13. The Liberal election victory of 1906 was a result of division in the conservative party and nothing else - discussed

    Misfortunes of the Conservative party noticeably outweighed the party's fortunes. A key political issue at the time was poverty. The population had been rapidly increasing during Victorian times and a post-Victorian age was to bear the consequence. In order to look after the increasing numbers of the 'less well-off' people, attitudes were going to have to change. However the conservatives did little to provide social reformation and were weak in politically satisfying the demands of the masses. The masses, of which many were living in poverty didn't receive sympathy from the likes of James Balfour, an Etonian who probably had the faintest of ideas of what conditions for the poor were actually like.

    • Word count: 1712
  14. Russia, 1905 - 1917, The Causes of Revolutionary Change. Using your knowledge of the events of 1917 (March - November) explain why the Provisional Government failed to hold on to power.

    Some people think that the Provisional Government was doomed from the start, as the governing system of dual power would never work, and that they would lose power in the near future. I think that the Provisional Government made several bad decisions, but the biggest of their mistakes was that they did not put an end to the war. They could have pulled out of the war at anytime, and made a truce with the Germans, but chose not to concede.

    • Word count: 2701
  15. Once the war ended, Alexander Hamilton settled in New York, and began his great legal career.

    Hamilton viewed of the constitution in a different way than most other government figures at that time. His view was called loose construction; it said that instead of doing what the constitution allows you to do, do what it does not say you can not do. Once he starts serving as Secretary of the Treasury, he will be highly questioned by the American people. Washington decided to have his two main advisers to be opposites of each other. One of those men is the writer of the constitution, Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson unlike Hamilton believed you can not do any thing that is not written in the constitution this view was called strict construction.

    • Word count: 889
  16. The novel "The voices of silence" by Bel Mooney is set in the country of Romania during the last months of the regime of the dictator Nicolae Ceausescu.

    When rain falls puddles collect easily, as there is no drainage system just unfinished ground. Flora describes her flat as tiny with only two rooms, a tiny kitchen and bathroom. The sofa in the flat is her parent's double bed at night. It is a damp flat which was evident from Flora's description of the dampness that "bubbled" and "sprouted" on the walls. Also they have an old wooden draining board which is cracked down the middle. They heat the flat with paraffin but it isn't enough to keep the flat warm. Each day at dawn they have to queue for bread and milk.

    • Word count: 917
  17. Politics is the collective name given to many different systems, ideas and real world issues. It is impossible to define politics as any one thing in particular, but as a label for many different aspects of life encompassed into one.

    Decisions also have to be made on how to resolve conflict, how to discipline people and to what level of harshness. Conflict occurs on small and large scales. Individuals or entire groups argue with each other regarding matters of interest, their values and beliefs. Conflict can arise as a result of man's greed, many people tend to want as much as possible, in society. When people priorities differ from each other, conflict arises. People's own values can also contribute to conflict, Political issues are often the result of strong opposition to a particular action from people with strong moral values.

    • Word count: 1167
  18. Assess how society was changing at the turn of the century. Refer to at least four different countries in your answer.

    By the end of the nineteenth century, the political balance of power that had kept Europe at a temperate level of peace since Napoleon's near domination of Europe in 1815, began to unravel. At the centre of this disengagement stood the Great Powers, most notably Great Britain, Germany, Russia and France. The arms race played a key role in linking these countries, as the ever-present threat of a larger and stronger army created tension between the Great Powers. Through most of the nineteenth Century, Great Britain avoided the sort of social upheaval that had plagued the continent for the most part of the century.

    • Word count: 1684
  19. What were the problems facing Liberal Italyin 1919?

    People feared that the capitalist system was breaking down. This also caused the factory worker's pages to fall immensely and by the end the 1st World War had left an economic legacy. Furthermore, money wasn't the only issue that was facing the Liberal country. Language problems, illiteracy, poverty and Catholic opposition were only a few matters that were an issue. Only 2% of the population actually spoke Italian, over 70% were illiterate and no investment in the South made it extremely poor. The socialists had no confidence in Liberalism and were more interested in using their funds on imperialism, instead of Italy.

    • Word count: 675
  20. How far had the Liberal Governments of Italy gone to solve Italy's problems by 1914?

    This point is highlighted in the table below1: Examples of dialect variations in 1861 'Thursday' 'Boy/child' Italian Giovedi Bambino Lombardy Giuedi Bagai Tuscany Zovedi Bimbo Lazio Giovedi Regazzino Sicily Ioviri Picciottu This is one of the major problems with Italy, as a country, it could not modernise or make "Italians" of its people without adequate communication. There was a lack of empathy between the sister states of Italy. There had been little shared History since the Roman empires fall almost 1500 years earlier.

    • Word count: 2728
  21. This house believes that realised anarchy, as a political idea is the way to create a perfect society.

    A prosperous society, having everything it needs, yet possessing nothing. A star of emancipated humanity, shining bright and beautiful. This description of my idea of 'utopia' is an 'anarcho-pacifist' or 'anarcho-socialist' vision. 'Anarchism' also known as 'libertarian socialism.' Is different to 'libertarian capitalism' that is a thesis that emphasizes social liberty but not social justice, and 'authoritarian socialism' an antithesis that emphasizes social justice but not social liberty. Whereas 'anarchism' is a golden synthesis, which emphasizes both equally, thus best expressing the ideal of 'liberty and justice for all.' The small problem with anarchism, though, is that it is for the present it is not a very practical ideology and not largely accepted in the general world.

    • Word count: 1141
  22. Modern election campaigns - Campaigns and their importance

    Although in the 1997 election many voters seem to have decided their vote before the campaign began. It was time for change after 18 years of Conservative rule; Labour retained its massive poll lead at a steady rate and won the election comfortably. The campaign conducted nationally is now carried out mainly on television. It is designed to: > Reinforce the views of those who are already committed to the party. > Recruit the genuinely undecided. > Convert the waverers in other parties.

    • Word count: 631
  23. “Assess the reasonsfor and the success of the Liberal Welfare Reforms” (1906-14)

    Judging by these interpretations it is important to understand as to why the Liberals implemented such 'radical' ideas and whether they were successful. Many political analysts have argued that Campbell Bannerman's administration had failed to generate the needed impact in their bid to introduce a welfare system in Britain. In spite of this Stewart & Pearce proceeded by arguing that some measures proved to be of some credibility since they highlighted the government's willingness to interfere in domestic issues. The 1906 Education Act was implemented for the purpose of providing free meals for children with no viable source of nutrition.

    • Word count: 1496
  24. The Articles of Confederation from the period 1781 till 1789 - American Government

    The taxation that occurred on imports drastically penetrated states such as Rhode Island, as mentioned in a letter to Congress, where economy is much based on the importation. John Jay's instructions to the US minister to Great Britain pertained to the problem of not being able to pay debts showed many problems which arose from it, and also the weak state divided trade powers. The economy during this time period created a debt not only foreign but domestically with its own people, such as the military by which the delegate Joseph Jones brought up through a letter to Washington.

    • Word count: 600
  25. When Mao and the Communist party came into power, there were many problems to solve

    This is when the landowners were removed from the land and the land was redistributed among the peasants. Mao soon realised that the small plots of land given to the peasants would not be able to feed the entire population. He encouraged the small farms to join together in what would be called a co-operative or collective farm. In 1957/8, co-operatives were reorganised into large communes. The communes looked after every aspect of life i.e. industry, agriculture, education, welfare, defence etc. Mao believed that life in the communes would lead to an ideal communist society, by people learning to work for the common good of the community.

    • Word count: 3213

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