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GCSE: Politics

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  1. British Political Direction

    This makes it impossible for any third party to gain influence in the government. You might ask how such disproportional representation allows for legitimacy in the regime. Because of such a homogeneous base and the centrist party tendencies that this fosters, the majority party will not differ that greatly with the loyal opposition. Although they may have no power to regulate government, they have a good chance at winning the next election. This is key to legitimacy in majoritarian governments. They are not condemned to be the permanent opposition. There is a convergence over the rules of the political game and so disenchantment is not probable.

    • Word count: 2977
  2. Geopolitical consequences of the demise of the Soviet Union

    It should offer greater incentives for the oil companies. Alternatively, it should persuade Turkey to provide significant reductions in transit fees and other concessions to reduce the overall costs of the Baku-Ceyhan pipeline. Finally, the US government should encourage greater communication and dialogue between AIOC representatives and Turkish, Georgian and Azerbaijani government officials. Introduction In the past a few years, foreign policy specialists, oil companies, Western World, and the countries surrounding the Caucasus and Central Asia have been paying an increasing amount of attention to this southern tier of the former Soviet Union and specifically to the geopolitical issues surrounding the development and transportation of Caspian gas and oil.

    • Word count: 5115
  3. Local Government Vs. National Government

    People in Britain have most direct dealings with local government than with national government. Local counsils traditionally manage nearly all public servises. Taken together, they employ three times as many people as the national government does. In addition, there's no system in Britain whereby a national government official has responsibility for a particular geographical area. In practice, therefore, local councils have traditionally been fairly free from constant central interference in their day to day work. Local councils are allowed to collect one kind of tax, based on property (all other kinds are collected by central government).

    • Word count: 741
  4. What, if any thing, does political culture explain?

    There are many other ways in which political culture can be changed, and the media is one of them, which affect this. This is also known as indoctrination. There are two ways of seeing this. One of which is known as passive and the other as latent. Indoctrination simply means making people think something. The media often portray such actions to deliberately make people think in one direction, focussing them on one particular subject or idea. These objects are ones, which may affect political culture.

    • Word count: 1145
  5. Asylum Seekers.

    How could our government policy be altered to help stem the tide of asylum seekers to England? During the past ten years numbers of illegal immigrants entering the United Kingdom have increased dramatically. One of the most influential factors in this increase has been the building of the channel tunnel between England and France. As stated this has meant that increased numbers of illegal immigrants have been entering the country and security has had to be stepped up to try and combat this.

    • Word count: 961
  6. Scope of Parliamentary Sovereignty as defined by Dicey, and arguments against it by various academics.

    For instance a man can become a woman in British legal terms. Parliament can also legislate for all persons and all places. If the English law says diving in the Maldives is an offence, it is an offence for an Englishmen, even though the Maldivian law permits it. Any act of Parliament will be valid if it has received the royal assent. However as Allan (1988) argues a parliament enactment whose effects would be destruction of any form of democracy could not be applied by the courts as law.

    • Word count: 904
  7. Consider the arguments for and against retaining first-past-the-post for general elections

    Very simply, Britain is divided into hundreds of geographical constituencies. Voters choose between the candidates on offer in their constituency, and the candidate with the plurality of votes is elected to parliament. The party with the majority of seats forms the government. This system has the basic advantage of being the incumbent system, meaning it is widely understood and recognised. It also has the advantage of being simple to operate (compared with most other systems). The nature of the system's over-rewarding of the main party generally leads to a strong, single-party government.

    • Word count: 1576
  8. What, if Anything, Does ‘Cabinet Government’ Mean?

    equal influence and being subject to collective responsibility'. The Cabinet ministers provide a link between the executive and legislative. They are members of and are accountable to parliament but also serve as political heads of government departments. The Cabinet adheres to a convention known as collective responsibility. This means that, in public, the members of the Cabinet give support to government policies, even if they privately disagree. If a minister is unable to support a Cabinet decision, that minister is expected to resign or be dismissed.

    • Word count: 1171
  9. What problems did the Italian Government face at the end of World War 1?

    The Italian military at the end of the First World War was very small compared to other European nations at the time. The Italian army had only 12 submarines, 22 cruisers and 14 battleships. These figures compared to Britain were seen as a disgrace, the British had 64 submarines, 121 cruisers and 64 battleships. The Italian military was a very weak and small military and this was a very large issue that needed to be solved. There were also a lot of causalities for the Italians at the end of World War 1, and this was a large problem in the Italian government as this led to the amount of soldiers decreasing.

    • Word count: 1905
  10. Sharpeville Massacre Sources Question

    Source A states that there were 5,000 people and that this number was greatly inflated by many others. Source B, however, states that there were four times that many protestors. Source B is quick to place the blame for the hostilities on the protestors, saying that they fired on the police first, and that the police were merely defending themselves when they fired. Source A makes no mention as to who fired the first shots, but describes the crowd as "Waiting patiently for the expected announcement" and does not say that they were holding any weapons whatsoever. 2b)

    • Word count: 2851
  11. Street Prostitution, St Kilda, Australia - the issue

    Prostitution became densely concentrated in the city, however, the development of Melbourne, the impact of the First and Second World Wars, economic depression and legislative change saw the industry decline and spread into the inner city suburbs, such as St Kilda, Fitzroy and South Melbourne. Reports do exist of prostitution in St Kilda occurring as early as the late nineteenth century, however it was not common in the said area until the late 1930's. In today's era, street prostitution become a severely principle issue in the St Kilda area.

    • Word count: 1001
  12. What were the Key Features of the Watergate Scandal?

    One of the main negative effects was the decline of public confidence in the American Government. This was seen in the next Presidential Election when an unknown politician by the name of Jimmy Carter won the election for the Democratic Party. The overall image of the USA was also changed and they were no longer seen as the superpower. This was because they used to be seen as the leaders of the Free World but the scandal showed the American President to be corrupt and a bit like a dictator, the way he manipulated the FBI and CIA.

    • Word count: 507
  13. Is Party Identification still the main determinant in Electoral Choice?

    With identifiers voting is seen more as expressive, not purposeful and instrumental- "party voting", as opposed to "policy voting". Party voting can come from many different mediums, initially inherited through the family and strengthened over time, partisanship is a method of making sense of the overwhelming barrage of political information which voters are expected to deal with. The influence of family and social circles creates the party identification and the voter from this point then forms his/her policy beliefs around the party's ideas, and then on to the vote itself.

    • Word count: 2553
  14. To what extent were governments responsible for popular protest in the period 1815-28?

    Protest was popular from 1815-22; the government introduced the six acts 1819 and the game laws. The six acts stopped mass gathering for protest, didn't allow seditious literature to be owned by anyone and put the price of newspapers up with stamp duties. The government were mostly to blame for protest in the period 1815-22, as they didn't initiate reforms and kept life dominated by the landed classes (upper classes.)

    • Word count: 459
  15. History Coursework Assignment South Africa 1945-1994

    He attended the university of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg to study law. In 1947 Mandela became the ANC's youth league's secretary. The same year Mandela set up the first black law firm in Johannesburg. To show people that blacks can be just as successful as whites In 1949 the 'Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act' came into force meaning that not only blacks and whites couldn't marry, but blacks and whites who were already married had to split. On December 5th 1956 Mandela was arrested and accused of high treason.

    • Word count: 1131
  16. Patriotism - a sincere love and loyal support for one's country

    Disguised as a Dutch schoolmaster, Hale had almost crossed British lines when he was captured. At his execution by hanging on September 22, 1776, Nathan Hale told the British, "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." � Thomas Jefferson, who is considered one of the greatest political and diplomatic thinkers in American history, once said, "...It will make you adore your own country, how little do my countrymen know what precious blessings they are in possession of, and which no other people enjoy."

    • Word count: 402
  17. Political Violence in Ireland.

    As a result the people, because of their fear of being overtaken, resorted to resisting the rule of law and order. Based on this theory, one would then ask whether the government's interpretation of such resistance as a public threat has always, or even often, been correct. Throughout this book, the author handles a great range of primary and secondary sources. One main source that is consistently referred to is Hannah Arendt. One of her main insights is that 'no one engaged in thought about history and politics can remain unaware of the enormous role violence has always played in human affairs' and that it is 'rather surprising that violence has been singled out so seldom for special consideration.'

    • Word count: 935
  18. How important are political parties to the decision-making process involved in Congress and what role do they play in answering the question of does democracy works in the United States?

    Other measures of legislation handling are also defended such as the importance of committees and of the floor vote. The majority party controls members' decisions to a policy in Congress. Parties stabilize the House by controlling the Rules and by "binding its members to support a specific structure of agenda power..." (Coz and McCubbins "Bonding..."). Cox and McCubbins conclude that the majority party of Congress in both the House and the Senate dominate what policies are heard in both committees and on the floor. This is justified by stating the majority party has the power to allocate resources. The majority party displays control by giving its members more advantages in the legislative process and by punishing those who do not follow the approval of majority party consensus.

    • Word count: 1061
  19. Why does the Chinese Government at the start of the 21st Century refuse to give its people democratic rights, despite encouraging private enterprise in industry, commerce & agriculture and how do you see this situation developing in the next few years?

    The Chinese government seeing no way out of the "Mao-made" crisis that ensued were forced against Marxist principals to grant peasants some private enterprise. The Chinese government also have an ambition to become a modernised world economic power, however the previously closed Chinese markets have caused many big companies to remain out of China's markets, thus causing China to slip back into a state of industrial stagnation. However with Deng's "economic zones" China has slowly become a world power. But with Russia's recent disastrous conversion to democracy will China risk everything and give its people political freedom?

    • Word count: 1373
  20. Have the Chinese People Been Better Off In Each of These Area’S Since the Death of Mao?

    However, the whole picture was not shown to the outside world. Many people with high positions were sneaking their children into universities along side worker and peasant students. Lots of homesick students in the countryside were sneaking back into the city. Factory managers wanted new, more up-to-date machinery and scientists wanted contact with the rest of the world these issues were not so forthcoming. None of these problems were addressed because no-body heard about them this was mainly due to the 'Gang of Four' who were extreme Left Wing and controlled the media.

    • Word count: 3027
  21. Why woman failed to gain the right to vote between 1900 and 1914

    The suffragists campaigns were unsuccessful and not publicised and they were un-united as it was not unusual for them to disagree and suddenly split up into many splinter groups this did not help matters, as they did not stand together in their cause. Some other long term factors were the general views of some of the public. They were not interested in giving the cause the support it needed and some women were brainwashed that they were lower than men themselves and speaking of men, they themselves had not gained attention for their own suffrage cause (working men)

    • Word count: 1195
  22. Was the Great Leap Forward a ‘Tragedy of Good Intentions’?

    The Great Leap Forward was preceded by a set of five year plans, during which Mao's political nature was very different to that during the years after late 1957. Although he was prone to an explosive temper, he was generally a rational policy-maker seeking advice from his top colleagues and specialist officials. The goals that were pursued although a little overambitious were not obviously unattainable as in the Great Leap.3 The test of Mao's absolute dominance over the Party came at the in January 1958 during the Nanning conference, where top leaders of the Party "sat like school children striving

    • Word count: 3081
  23. The rise of Fascism in Italy was the result of a conservative reaction to change. How far do you agree?

    Benito Mussolini, "Il Duce", was the founder of and leader of Italian Fascism. In order to understand Mussolini's rise to power, and how it may have been the result of a conservative reaction to change, we must analyse the background of Italy, firstly, to determine which were the changes that caused the reaction and how conservationism could have lead Fascism into power. Therefore we must consider the period before, during and after the Great War in our analysis, and explore the reactions before Mussolini becoming prime minister, as it was his power as prime minister that made Mussolini able to rise to dictatorship, without much care of popular opinion.

    • Word count: 2493
  24. European Parliament

    Elles Jillian Evans Jonathon Evans Robert J. E. Evans Nigel Paul Farage Glyn Ford Jacqueline Foster Neena Gill Robert Goodwill Daniel J. Hannan Malcolm Harbour Christopher Heaton-Harris Roger Helmer Michael John Holmes Mary Honeyball Richard Howitt Ian Stewart Hudghton Stephen Hughes Christopher Huhne John Hume Lord Inglewood Caroline F. Jackson Bashir Khanbhai Glenys Kinnock Timothy Kirkhope Jean Lambert Caroline Lucas Sarah Ludford Elizabeth Lynne Linda McAvan Arlene McCarthy Neil MacCormick Edward H. C. McMillan-Scott Eryl Margaret McNally David W.

    • Word count: 2055

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