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GCSE: Politics

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  1. Parliamentary Democracy

    So let us see how democracy works, and how more effectively contrast this parliamentary democracy with the democracy of the revolutionist. When elected that party which counts he greatest number of voters is presumed to form cabinet as representing the majority of the total amount of people who vote. But it by no means says that a majority of the nation represents the majority of the voters. In many constituencies, for example where there are two or more candidates for a seat.

    • Word count: 694
  2. Describe the main stages by which Fascism developed into an effective political movement between its foundation in March 1919 and the march on Rome in October 1922.

    Their programmes support this idea in 1919; their programmes at this time included the promises of an eight-hour working day, a guaranteed minimum wage, liberty of opinion and conscience as well as the nationalisation of all arms and munitions factories. The Fascist policies at this time were a mixture of Socialist and Nationalist ideas, which meant that they faced serious policy oppositions. From 1920 Mussolini began to drop some of his more radical policies, instead realising that Italy needed to be turned around, he began to present a party which boasted strong leadership, law and order, a way to form national greatness and unite Italians.

    • Word count: 1699
  3. Body Modification: Self-Expression or Self-Abuse?

    The significance of body modifications of all types had social, political, and religious meanings in ancient times. Body modification was used to prove ones strength and bravery to a tribal chief, to impress the family of an intended mate, or simply for adornment to enhance one's physical characteristics to make themselves more attractive to the opposite sex. However, body modification goes beyond pleasing man. It holds religious significance and is sometimes a sacrificial act to please one's god. Ancient cultures preformed body modifications for strict purposes. They were used to please gods, leaders, to gain a mate, or to prove their own self worth and ability to accept pain.

    • Word count: 628
  4. Representation and Democracy in Britain 1830 – 1931

    The Great (first) Parliamentary Reform Act 1832 The 1832 act abolished the pocket, or rotten borough, which had formed unrepresentative constituencies, redistributed seats on a more equitable basis in the counties, and formed some new boroughs. The franchise was extended to male householders in property worth �10 a year or more in the boroughs and to owners of freehold property worth �2 a year, �10 copyholders, or �50 leaseholders in the counties. Earl Grey and the Whigs of the 1830's Earl Grey was leader of a Whig government that came into power in November 1830.

    • Word count: 7651
  5. Spain and Devolution

    Catalonia's increased external orientation is welcomed, not simply for the economic and cultural benefits it brings, but because it lessens the linkages with the Castillian centre. The extent to which Catalan nationalism is now content with its status as a nation-without-a-state (Keating, 1996) or the extent to which it is moving towards greater independence - perhaps, at least initially, within a federal structure - is a matter of some debate among scholars. What is clear, however, is that the increasing political freedom of the region, its increased prosperity and the reinforcement of Catalan identity has not overcome its ambivalence about being part of the Spanish state.

    • Word count: 1272
  6. What was the importance of the homefront to the final outcome to the war?

    They could seize land, buildings and any industries, which could help the war effort. It also allowed the government to conscript men into the army In 1915 the government found it had a problem it was running out of bullets, shells, guns, bombs and other munitions and the first time many new recruits saw a gun was when they went to the front line as they had trained with sticks.

    • Word count: 444
  7. How has the National Assembly opened up new opportunities for women in Wales?

    This marked the biggest change in the governing of Wales since the creation of the Welsh office in 1964. The creation of the National Assembly was also significant because it introduced a new election system. The traditional method of electing members of the House of Commons is "First Past The Post" but many people argue that proportional representation is a much fairer method. The Assembly elections were a mixture of both - there are 60 Assembly members for the whole of Wales, forty were elected by the "First Past The Post" system in single member constituencies and the remaining twenty were elected by the "Party List" system.

    • Word count: 1793
  8. Describe some party political broadcast by different parties, comparing their use of different techniques, say what their purposes are and decide if they are affective.

    Sub-titles such as a "million more jobs" tells us what labour have done and how Britain has changed since 1997. Labour tell you that they are going to increase pensions, they tell you this by using Subtitles. Labour have banned handguns and mines, this is one of princess Dianna's charities. Dickie bird the famous cricket umpire who wants to have free eye tests. This is a little joke because people always say the umpires need their eyes tested. Then at the very end there is a voice of Kevin Whatey says, " The work goes on, A lot has been done but there's still a lot more to do.

    • Word count: 817
  9. The San people

    The goats and cattle own by their neighbors had pollute most of the underground water and eating away most of the grazing that support the wild plants and animal, with all these new problems introduce by their neighbor is hard for the San to solve and maintain their traditional way of living. So as their food resources threatened by their neighbor, most of the San were kind of force to give up hunting and gathering and they started to work as goat and cattle herder, and they were also encourage by the government and international agencies to replace their foraging society with farming.

    • Word count: 550
  10. South Africa - Apartheid Sources Questions

    In South Africa there were also Indian people, who had been born there and lived there all their life. Source A tells us that The National Party wanted to send Indian people "home". The National Party didn't see Indians as 'true' South Africans and wanted them to go back to India, which was their 'home'. The National Party wanted a white South Africa, and Source A shows us that their views were racist and bad for the future of South Africa. Question B (i) : The way in which Source A and Source B disagree about Apartheid is that Source A and Source B are both written by different people for different reasons.

    • Word count: 3244
  11. Assess the view that government is concerned with the exercise of political power.

    When you have power you are above the people on whom you exercise your power. So political power is if and how the government exercise power in the political arena. One of the places in which the government exercise's their power is in the international arena. Getting what they want from the foreign countries. As with the current situation in Afghanistan. Where Britain and the USA are currently staging military strikes on the Taliban regime. The two western governments are exercising their full political power through their military. They are showing the Taliban that if the laws laid by the UN and other international bodies of governments are broken, then sanctions will be put on them.

    • Word count: 947
  12. American politics in the early part of the 1800’s, housed two political parties; the Jeffersonian Republicans and the Federali

    "Our country is too large to have all its affairs directed by a single government." This idea of diminished federal rule and the preservation of strong states' rights is surely consistent with the Jeffersonian ideal. Similarly, Document B illustrates this great man's view that the federal government should not interfere in religious matters. He feels that since the Constitution does not explicitly give the power for centralized control over religion, it should thus be left in the hands of the states. "Certainly no power to prescribe any religious exercise, or to assume authority in religious discipline, has been delegated, to the general government.

    • Word count: 971
  13. Why do you think the Parisian crowds invaded the Bastille on July 14, 1789? Was it because of food prices?, the dismissal of Necker?, the layout of the city?, something else? Give evidence to support your answer.

    Therefore, it would be nothing but oversimplification to make this historically salient event depend on only one reason. It was an outcome of the combination of political, social, intellectual and economic motives that caused a general intolerance in the country. However the most significant and critical factor that made Parisians invade Bastille was the economic crisis. France was separated into different socio-economic classes; the First Estate, which was composed of clergy, the Second Estate, which was consisted of nobility and landowners, and everyone else (the bourgeoisie, the peasants and the urban poor of Paris) belonged to the Third Estate.

    • Word count: 717
  14. Select three major issues and explain the policies of two major political parties with regard to your selection

    Another important issue for both policies is that of the Euro and the proposed single European Currency. Labour are (despite in-party conflicts) in favour of Britain adopting the Euro, but it is their policy to hold a Nation referendum on the matter when they believe 'five key economic tests' have been passed. Conservatives, on the other hand, are (in the main), against the UK joining the single European currency, Conservatives being more traditionally 'Euro-sceptics', and their current policy is to keep the pound.

    • Word count: 1181
  15. How accurate is it to describe the UK as a cohesive political culture?

    Returning to Britain and what to measure the cohesion against, we still have trouble defining the question. Even if we assume the majority is of the whole population and not a select group. There are many ways of splitting the populace so as to show divisions that would indicate that Britain certainly does not have a unified political culture. Economically, politically, ethnically, geographically and gender-wise the UK is divided significantly. But does this mean Britain is not a cohesive political culture?

    • Word count: 1586
  16. Account for the Liberal landslide in the 1906 General Election

    Or was it the fact that the public felt lied to over the Boer war? On the other hand was it a great Liberal victory due to their policy's, their appeal to the public, organisation in the party or was it the Party's ability to attack it opponent's weaknesses. The Tariff Reform policy was put forward by a Liberal Unionist called Joe Chamberlain who had earlier split the Liberals over Irish home rule and unfortunately for the Conservatives he had the same effect on them. The policy itself was put together because of Chamberlains awareness that British Businessmen where suffering because other countries were erecting barriers against British goods.

    • Word count: 1136
  17. Why did the extreme right hate the Weimar government and why did they fail to overthrow the republic between 1919 and 1923?

    The right wing hated the Weimar government because of a variety of different reasons. One main one being the treaty of Versailles, within Germany it was seen to be a "diktat" as well as being a shameful peace and "stab in a back". The signing of the treaty of Versailles lead to Germany admitting defeat and this dented German upper classes pride. Many were extreme nationalists and believed in a strong Germany as well as the admitting of defeat Germany also lost many of her colonies, which were a sign of her once, great empire which many of the right wing had helped to conquer and was a sign of a great Germany.

    • Word count: 974
  18. Party Member, Delegate for District, Scrutineer of Governments. Which of these or Other Roles of Members of Congress Would He/She Consider to be Most Important?

    We have seen that, in America, politicians only very loosely identify with their parties. In fact, the parties are often used merely as conduits to power for many Congressmen. It is indeed sometimes hard to even find out for which party certain members stand for, so slight is the perceived importance of party affiliation to some Congressmen. Political parties in the US do not experience the same kind of cohesion that we associate with voting in the House of Commons in Britain, due to a lack of any real way to enforce party discipline on their members, and therefore there is little or no compulsion for Congressmen to act in a way that suits their party.

    • Word count: 986
  19. Examine Whether or not Power is the Same as Authority.

    There are three types of Authority. The first type, charismatic authority rests on the appeal of leaders who claim allegiance because of their extraordinary virtuosity, whether ethical, heroic or religious. Examples of people who have become powerful due to their following could be Hitler, Mother Teresa, Ghandi or even Margaret Thatcher. In some cases, people are drawn to the leader because of their qualities, and their authority may continue to thrive even after they die. Although this notion of charisma may lack a straight definition, its importance lies in Weber's development of the idea that the leader derives his role from the belief that his followers have about his mission.

    • Word count: 926
  20. What, other than the personal beliefs of Margaret Thatcher was there to Thatcherism?

    If we consider the personal beliefs of Margaret Thatcher in more depth then it is not even necessary that they all reside within the domain of Thatcherism. The previous statement may sound perverse but if the connotations of 'associated' are explored then we could probably find personal beliefs of Margaret Thatcher that were not associated with Thatcherism. The formalisation of the question into the language of set theory has brought useful clarity to the intended scope of the question which requests a description of a domain with two conditions; the disjunction of Margaret Thatcher's personal beliefs in union with the set of things considered Thatcherism.

    • Word count: 3184
  21. Critically examine how Mahatma Gandhi used the concept of non-violence as a practical tool of resistance to the colonial rule

    Firstly we shall examine Gandhi and his philosophy of non-violence in more detail, then the other major reasons that contributed to the downfall of British rule. Mohandas K. Gandhi, known popularly as Mahatma ('great soul'), was a philosopher and a social campaigner as well as a charismatic politician. Gandhi led the Indian Nationalist movement from 1915. Through skilful use of symbolic imagery from Hindu culture and India's history, he succeeded in widening the appeal of what had previously been an upper class, city based campaign to create a popular mass movement that drew support from India's huge rural population (Derbyshire:1999).

    • Word count: 2438
  22. The Political Culture of Ireland Has Remained Stable Since the Foundation of the State

    Also, Almond and Verba conceptualise the assumptions of political culture into four definite premises; civic virtue and responsibility, participatory and pluralistic democracy, order through rational bureaucracy and stability through modernisation. They see civic culture as "the kind of community life and social organisations that fosters civic virtue" 3. They view civic culture as reflecting democratic characteristics. In terms of participatory and pluralistic democracy they regard civic culture as based upon the toleration of individual freedoms and government through a unity of the governed.

    • Word count: 3214
  23. The McKenzie Thesis (explain). Is Britain still a two party system – was it and is it an accurate model?

    Others argue that a multiparty system has developed since 1970. Before 1997, many commentators argued that a dominant party system was developing as the Conservatives had won the past four elections. The Labour victory in 1997 suggests that the two party model may be more appropriate after all but to complicate matters the Liberal Democrats got 16.8% of the National votes and 46 seats - the highest number of Liberal MPs since 1929 during Lloyd George's Indian summer. This hardly suggests they should be written off as minor and insignificant as in McKenzie's thesis. Indeed, had it been proportional today, they would have got about a 100 of 500 pages.

    • Word count: 844
  24. Opposition to the New Deal

    * Some people felt it didn't go far enough, they wanted to share out wealth more equally, setting up a socialist or even communist state. * Also, many people felt that the New Deal wasn't working as well as it was claimed, unemployment actually rose in the later 1930s so all the agencies etc had only been a temporary solution, the problem still existed and some groups such as blacks and poor farmers had not really received much help for their situation.

    • Word count: 616
  25. Was Germany as a Nation Ready For a Democracy?

    Democracy seemed to be a key part of success. However, within the German public there was a firm built in belief that if democracy was brought into Germany it would mean defeat, partly due to the lack of experience Germany had with dealing with any kind of democratic government, having been ruled for so long by an autocratic government. Also, as the victors of the war were democratic, the public didn't want it to appear that they were not only losing to these countries and having to give them land and so on, but also changing their political system to be more like theirs.

    • Word count: 1530

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