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Account for the rise of militarism in Japan during the 1930s.

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Introduction

Chan Yiu Fai??? S7A (3) Chan Shu Kui Memorial School 15-1-2001 Account for the rise of militarism in Japan during the 1930s. Answer: Japanese militarism reached the peak?? in 1932-45. This era was called the "Dark Valley?????" in Japanese history. In its simplest meaning, militarism means prestige and greatness of Japan at the expense?? of other countries, an aggressive foreign policy, dominance?? and overall political control by military officers, a huge military budget, an intensive??? armament programme as well as militarist attitudes of the people as a whole. The rise of Japanese militarism in the 1930s was due to many factors. Firstly, the emergence of Shintoism??? in the late Tokugawa era provided Japanese militarism with the ideological foundation. Japanese people were the offspring?? of Sun Goddess????. Hence they were racially superior to other nations. Since Sun Goddess was the direct ancestor?? of the Japanese royal family, so the tenno?? was the centre of loyalty. Anyone who could influence the emperor was thus able to command the whole state. ...read more.

Middle

and Hirohito?? (1926-89) were weak. Nobody could control the Army and Navy, but they acted in the name of the emperor. The success of Japan's foreign policy in 1894-1919 justified?? her overseas aggression and raised the prestige of military personnel. For example, Japan defeated China in 1895; she gained an indemnity of 200 million taels?? and Taiwan. Defeating Russia in 1905, Japan not only monopolized?? Korea but became one of the greatest powers in the world. In 1919 Japan got Shandong?? and the German island colonies in the Pacific. She even became a permanent member of the Security Council of the League of Nations??????????????. Thus, Japanese people were convinced of the militarist demands for overseas aggression. Military personnel were their rightful????? leaders. Besides, industrialization necessitated?? Japan's expansion for the sake of?? raw materials, markets and places of investment. Failure of party government during the 1920s also discredited?????? parliamentary democracy???? in Japan. H. Wray says that the political parties of the Taisho era were "opportunistic, self-centred????, and limited in their conception?? ...read more.

Conclusion

Besides, the US Exclusion Act????of 1924 hurt Japanese national pride. The existence of ultra-nationalist secret societies added fuel to the rise of militarism in Japan, too. For instance, the Black Dragon Society??? and the League of Blood?? fanned up??? sentiments of Japanese racial superiority and thus encouraged overseas aggression. The most influential militarist intellectual was Kita Ikki???. He advocated?? the cause?? of "Showa Restoration????" to substitute?? the inefficient party government with military dictatorship. Some army men set up Sakurakai?? (Cherry Society) to agitate?? for militarism. They got many echoes??. The weakness of collective security?????? helped account for the rise of militarism in Japan. The League of Nations just paid lip services????? to stop Mussolini's aggression to Corfu??, Fiume??? and Somaliland????, which encouraged Japanese militarists to follow an expansionist foreign policy. The Shenyang Incident of 1931????? showed the initial?? disobedience??? of military men. The Guandong Army??? invaded Manchuria without the consent?? of the Tokyo central government. In the "May 15 Incident?????" of 1932 Premier Inukai??? was shot to death by naval officers and army cadets????. Frequent political assassinations?? and use of various terrors made party politicians submissive??. In 1940 the Imperial Rule Assistance Association????? started militarist rule formally in Japan. 1 ...read more.

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