• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10

Conflict Analysis: Angola

Extracts from this document...


Conflict Analysis: Angola 1) History & Context This conflict analysis will look into Angola's violent civil war between the summers of 1998 and 2001. There is no distinct explanation for the conflict that has engulfed Angola; a county that has had little experience of peace in twenty-six years of independence from Portugal. The violent conflict has evolved immensely over time, originally being driven by revolution (against colonialism) and then ideology (Socialism versus Capitalism) and in the latest phase 'a brutal competition between rival elites for a wealth of natural resources.1' Despite the conflict in Angola being a civil war predominantly between the governing MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) and the rebel group UNITA (Union for the Total Independence of Angola), it cannot be called intrastate. During the Cold War, the Socialist MPLA was backed heavily by Russia and Cuba, the latter of which supplied 15,000 troops which secured the capital Luanda, and stabilised much of the countryside. UNITA was backed by the USA and South Africa, allowing it at certain times to control southern and eastern areas of the country. The end of the Cold War had a profound effect on the Angolan conflict, but it still remained very much interstate. Today the war not only affects and is affected by Angola's neighbour states, but international commerce (notably the oil and diamond industries) and international organisations, especially the UN, also influence it. The character of the war changed in the 1990's. At the very start of the decade there was increased dialogue between UNITA's leader, Jonas Savimbi, and the MPLA President Dos Santos. The early 90's also saw the one party MPLA government move away from Marxism/Leninism towards making Angola a democratic state, by allowing free elections (Bicesse Accords May '91). The Cuban troops left, and there was great hope for peace. The elections, which the UN and foreign observers concluded to be 'generally free and fair'2, gave Dos Santos 49.6% and Savimbi 40.7% in the presidential elections. ...read more.


September saw further advances by UNITA, with its progression in both Malanje and Uige provinces. UNITA received external assistance from DRC rebels in Uige27. During October, fighting intensified in these northern provinces, spilling into Lunda Norte and Lunda Sol. Strategically these provinces were the chief diamond producing zones of Angola, and were thus essential for funding UNITA's war effort. During this period there was significant polarisation with UNITA being suspended from GURN. However at this point a splinter faction of UNITA - the UNITA Renewal Committee (UNITA-RC) - was formed under the leadership of Jorge Valentim. This allowed the government to cut all ties with Savimbi's UNITA, although Valentim's movement received negligible support from UNITA members28. In September the UN formally blamed UNITA for the present crisis29; an external factor, which set the scene for the UN's expanded efforts to undermine Savimbi's UNITA regime. By the end of the year, the violence had escalated to the level where it would stay for about a year. In December, prior to the government's congress, the FAA launched a big air attack on the UNITA strongholds of Bailundo and Mungo. UNITA retaliated by indiscriminately shelling and forcing the government to withdraw from these cities. This caused full polarisation during the government congress. President dos Santos called for the withdrawal of the UN observer mission and the end of the peace process, as well as the total isolation of Savimbi. These requests were followed through when the government branded Savimbi a war criminal and rejected Lusaka in January30. During late December and early January two UN C-130 Hercules aircraft crashed in suspicious circumstances, causing a deterioration of relations between the UN and the two warring parties. The UN deplored the lack of co-operation by UNITA31, and in a report, Kofi Annan stated that both the parties were to blame for the worsening situation. He stated that there was nothing left to do but to pull out the monitors and aid workers32. ...read more.


(KRWE), entries for June 1997, 41671, August, 41759, October, 41850 14 'UNITA resentment over UN sanctions decision', KRWE, November 1997, 41899 15 'Continued extension of state administration', KRWE, December 1997, 41947 16 "Deterioration in prospects for peace", KRWE, February 1998, 42052 17 "Renewed fears for the peace process", KRWE, May 1997, 41624 18 HRWWP 1998, p21 19 ibid 20 ibid. 21 "Renewed fears for the peace process", KRWE, May 1997, 41624 22 HRWWP 1999, 28 23 HRWWP 1999, p29 24 ibid, p28 25 'Escalation of civil war', KRWE, December 1998, 42656 26 HRWWP 1999, p28 27 'Continued fighting', KRWE, September 1998 28 'Suspension of UNITA deputies and ministers - Divisions within UNITA,' KRWE, September 1998 42477 29 UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1195 30 HRWWP 2000, p29 31 UNSC resolution: 1221 32 'Deterioration in relations with UN', KRWE, January 1999, 42711 33 'Government changes', KRWE, February 1999, 42768 34 UNSC resolution: 1237 35 HRWWP 2000, p32 36 'Moves to halt UNITA diamond trade by UN sanctions committee', KRWE, July 1999, 43051 37 'Intensified fighting', KRWE, August 1999, 43902 38 'Ban on Angolan diamond purchases', KRWE, October 1999, 43187 39 HRWWP 2001, p31 40 'UN report into sanctions' busting', KRWE, March 2000, 43445 41 HRWWP 2001, p34 42 'Government offensive - Zambian concerns' KRWE, May 2000, 43 HRWWP 2001, p32 44 HRWWP 2002, p32 45 The reports in the number of dead vary greatly due to the scarcity of information from rural areas. The lowest total number from the whole Angolan conflict is 500,000 and some sources state more than a million have died. 46ibid. 47 Jedrzej George Frynas and Geoffrey Wood, op. cit., p591 48 Steve Kibble & Alex Vines, op. cit., p543 49 'Escalation of UNITA activity', KRWE, May 2001, 44144 50 Steve Kibble & Alex Vines, ibid. 51 United Nations Statistics Division - Indicators on Health (page last checked 12/03/02) http://www.un.org/depts/unsd/social/health.htm 52 'Statement on re-election by president', KRWE, August 2001, 44289 53 Christine Gordon, op. cit., p42 Alex Rush Page 1 10/05/2007 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. UN (MODEL) Opening Speech - Republic of Congo - Economic Committee - Diamond Trade

    This has been the story since time immemorial. We must remember that these stones comprise of a very small percentage of the legitimate diamond industry whose trade is crucial in many of the emerging economies. It is true that the current estimates are that conflict zones account for only 1%

  2. The colonial factor in the Nigerian civil war (1967-1970)

    From these three timelines the problems under each of these will be identified and elaborated upon. The pre-colonial period 3The area, which became known as Nigeria, had existed as a number of independent and sometimes hostile national states with linguistic and cultural differences until 1900.

  1. Devolution is not a "constitutional settlement" but a dynamic (and potentially destabilising) process. ...

    Basically, they wanted full independence. Foreseeing the outcome, the SNP backed down and Alex Salmond, the leader of the SNP, made a coalition of sorts with Blair. Salmon argued, "The House of Commons doesn't have time or enough interest to meet the real political needs of Scotland.

  2. DanielO’Connell – 1775 – 1847

    The deadlock therefore still remained. In 1826 O'Connell and the association found a loop hole in the British elections and found that O'Connell could now play a pivotal role in British parliament due to Irish landowners coming together to use their vote. > British Politicians Divided over Catholic Emancipation (crisis)

  1. Description of Citizenship Activity Describe how you participated in a school or community based ...

    Show the variety of support material used (eg written, tape, photographic etc). We used many different websites using computers.Here are some of the websites we used to reaearch the charities: -www.wikipedia.org -www.rspca.co.uk -www.britishredcross.co.uk -www.google.com We helped produce posters and many other things.


    focuses on the quality of the judiciary. While controlling for other explanatory variables an index of the predictability of the judiciary from WB/UB significantly influences the level of corruption in59 countries. A similar correlation between corruption and the independence of the judiciary system is proposed in Adds and Di Tella (1996).

  1. Britain in the Age of Total War.

    ordinary civilians, all had to help deal with dead bodies and casualties from the bombing, it must have been exceptionally demoralising and distressing for civilians to see the dead bodies of children, and the fact that the government censored this photograph suggests that the photograph was too graphic Source C

  2. Compare and Contrast the Evolution of the Major Political Parties In the United States ...

    On April 14th 1865 Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth who was angry at the South's defeat. Between 1880 and 1886 there were many tensions within the British Liberal Party.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work