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Explain the main characteristics of the following electoral systems, Alternative Vote, PR List (open and closed), STV, First Past The Post and AMS.

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Introduction

Explain the main characteristics of the following electoral systems, Alternative Vote, PR List (open and closed), STV, First Past The Post and AMS. There are many systems used throughout the world, which are based on democracy to ensure that the needs of the populations are taken into account. Many countries are constantly trying to form new models and techniques to ensure equality, but there are still many systems that have disadvantages, for example, in the First Past the Post system the candidate with the most votes may not necessarily win the election. In this essay I will explain the main characteristics of a few of the most used electoral systems. First of all I will explain the 'First Past The Post' system, which is also called 'simple plurity'. It operates with single member constituencies and a simple majority is needed to win. Candidates in states using this system are listed in alphabetical order and they win a vote when the voters draw an 'X' beside their name. ...read more.

Middle

It creates a stable government and provides legislation. This system is different from most as the elector has two different votes. One for the constituency, and a second for a party. When the votes are counted the constituency representatives are elected from the first vote. The constituency representatives fill half of the six houndred and fifty-six seats. The party vote is made proportional to the amount of votes cast but computing how many seats each party would be entitles to and then subtracting from that number the amount of seats each party has won in the constituency vote. The figure remaining is equal to the number of extra seats received on the second vote. A party, which fails to secure 5% of votes across the country of 3 constituency seats, cannot take part in allocation of seats based on second votes. The list is ordered and the candidates are numbered. One complicating cam and does occasionally happen that a party wins more seats from the first vote that the total entitlement under the second vote. ...read more.

Conclusion

in Israel the was one for 120 seats. You vote with an 'X' and have no choice of candidate. The parties all receive a percentage of the votes in proportion to the percentage of votes the receive. There is very good proportionality but it usually ends up with coalitions e.g. in Israel and can be unstable as there were 3 elections in 4 years. Finally another version of Proportional representation is Single Transferable Vote (STV) is used to ensure a close link between the total amount of votes cast and the number of seats on. STV is used in European and The North of Ireland Assembly elections. And is based on multimember constituencies. Voters show their preference by writing a number beside each candidate they wise to get elected. A quota is then calculated by dividing the number of votes cast by the number of seats available plus one. If a candidate has enough votes they are elected, if the have a surplus these are redistributed according to second preference. The candidate with least number of votes is eliminated and votes are redistributed until all the seats have been filled. ...read more.

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