• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

How far do you agree that it was Cavour's diplomacy rather that Garibaldi's ideas and actions which made the greater contribution to Italian Unification?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Shantalie Hewavisenti How far do you agree that it was Cavour's diplomacy rather that Garibaldi's ideas and actions which made the greater contribution to Italian Unification? The historical view of Italian Unification like other revolutionary processes of the nineteenth century has become a mix of both exaggerated myth and fact. With hindsight historians can now detach themselves sufficiently from events to distinguish, objectively which figures in the Risorgimento allowed it to result in the United Kingdom of Italy in 1870. Any historical movement is a culmination of events and combination of different figures. Both Giuseppe Garibaldi and Count Camillo Benso di Cavour emerge as leading figures in the movement. Garibaldi is celebrated as a hero, a natural leader and military genius who inspired men to follow him to the death and he has become an admired figure in Italian History due to his inescapable charisma. On the other hand, Cavour is distinguished from Garibaldi and other revolutionaries of the Risorgimento, quite simply because, at heart he was not a revolutionary at all. Cavour instead was an astute politician and pragmatist whose great awareness and sensitivity to changing international events, acted as the catalyst for Italian Unification. Garibaldi is celebrated for his two main contributions to the Risorgimento, his valiant defence of the Roman Republic in 1848 and his Expedition to the South in 1860. Garibaldi only really emerged on the Italian scene in 1848 when he returned from South America where he was held in exile and never ceased to think about the liberation of Italy1. Garibaldi's power and influence became obvious with his brave resistance to Pius IX's French intervention in 1848. Although Garibaldi was ultimately defeated by Napoleon he still emerged as hero. In the public eye, Garibaldi was perceived as a romantic hero and he coined the phrase 'Roma o morte'. He inspired the masses through his adventures like no other revolutionary nationalist had done previously. ...read more.

Middle

It stated France would come to Piedmont's aid if Austria was the aggressor. Seaman categorises this compromise as the singularly most important factor to Italian Unification. This view is valid because had it not been for the 1859 war against Austria, Austrian influence would never have been expelled from the peninsula. This illustrates that it was through Cavour's diplomatic negotiations that unification became more realistic. It is important to realise that Cavour's attitude towards Italy displayed how his flexibility allowed his ideas to develop in a fashion that was ultimately beneficial for Italy. Cavour's actions led to the creation of the fundamental geographical foundations for a unified Italy in the formation of the 'Kingdom of Northern Italy'. Although there is little debate surrounding the importance of northern unification the fact that Cavour ceded Nice and Savoy over to France was seen a great betrayal by Italians especially Garibaldi as it displayed a lack of devotion to the Italian cause. However, this deficiency on Cavour's part was counteracted by Garibaldi's enthusiasm to recapture his hometown, Nice and so he set off on his expedition to the South where he unified Naples and Sicily. Another of Cavour's positive attributes that is forwarded by Denis Mack Smith was that he knew his own limitations and was aware of other figure's opinions of him illustrated by the following quotation: 'Cavour was much aware of the fact that he had come into politics with little experience of administration ...this remained one of the main charges against him'.12 Cavour was highly sensitive to the political climate. His pragmatic approach even though unpopular with his contemporaries, was his strongest attribute and enhanced the Unification movement. In contrast, Garibaldi's passion for unification blinded him to the stark reality of international sensitivities and this ironically led to his downfall. Jasper Ridley claims that Garibaldi was 'a great commander but not a great general'13. ...read more.

Conclusion

For this reason, we cannot celebrate Garibaldi's military input to the same extent as Cavour's contributions to unification. Although he was unable to inspire the masses with the same revolutionary zeal as Garibaldi, it was Cavour that was the leading force in unification at least up till 1861 as he was able to manipulate the political arena. Thus, Cavour's diplomacy did make a greater contribution to Italian Unification than Garibaldi's. There is an element of debate surrounding the success of the Risorgimento, yet we should not underestimate this momentous event in Italian history, which was only made possible by this clash between Cavour and Garibaldi and the fact that they were both able to put their differences aside in order to achieve the common goal of Italian unification. Word Count: 2992 1 Jasper Ridley - Garibaldi (1974)- p.224 2 A.J.Whyte - The Political Life and Letters of Cavour 1848-1861 (1930)- p.399 3 Denis Mack Smith - Garibaldi (1969)- p.147 4 Jasper Ridley - Garibaldi (1974) - p.636 5 Adriana Stiles- The Unification of Italy 1815-70 (2001) - p.53 6 George Macaulay Trevelyan - Garibaldi and the Thousand (1909)- p.5-7 7 Cesare Cant� - Della indipendenza italiana cronistoria (1878) - p.580 8 Carlo Tivaroni - Storia crtica del risorgimento italiano (1897) - p.506 9 Garibaldi - Denis Mack Smith (1969) - p.156 10 Adriana Stiles - The Unification of Italy 1815-1870 (2001) 11 Denis Mack Smith - Cavour (1985) - p.71 12 Denis Mack Smith - Cavour (1985) - p.70 13 Jasper Ridley - Garibaldi (1974) - p.635 14 ibid 15 Denis Mack Smith - Cavour (1985)- p.274 16 Jasper Ridley - Garibaldi (1974) - p.435 17 Vecchi - Garibaldi et Caprera - p.144 18 Denis Mack Smith - Cavour and Garibaldi 1860 - A Study in Political Conflict (1985)- p.222 19 Ibid 20 A.J.Whyte - The Political Life and Letters of Cavour 1848-61 (1930)- p.398 21 William Roscoe Thayer - The Life and Times of Cavour(1911) - p.479-81 22 Session of Camera dei deputati (April 18th 1861 ) quoted in : Il parlamento dell'unit� d'Italia - p.610-19_ 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. Why Did Revolutions Break Out so Widely Across Europe in 1848 and Why Did ...

    However, it is possible to identify flaws within these uprisings that meant they could never achieve their full aims or potentials. As the different causes of revolution between the groups we have already identified would suggest, the primary causes of failure were those deep divisions between the groups of revolutionaries,

  2. "The first World War killed the Liberal Party" how far do you agree with ...

    It is regarded by many that Dangerfield also underestimated the profound positive effects of the reforms and therefore, this period cannot be considered the death of Liberal England because it had a great deal of positive outcomes despite the bad ones.

  1. Which major domestic and international factors made German unification possible?

    "Security considerations were the central problem for the four powers, which had retained elements of sovereignty in the two Germanys after world war two and in the 4 powers agreement of 1971"2. The country who feared the security concept the most were the USSR, and when the four powers ending

  2. The debate over immigration and French identity is one of the most controversial questions ...

    As Pierre Amidieu du Clos stated: "Nous ne souffrons pas d'une crise de ch�mage national, mais d' une crise d' invasion �trang�re". Ideas like these were very easily implanted in the mind of french society andsoon they became a popular subject of banal conversations (in pub, metro,.....).

  1. The Negative Impact Of World War 1 On Italy: Weaknesses Of The Liberal State, ...

    The true extent of the 'socialist threat' has been exaggerated but what matters here is what conservatives thought. Their political enemies (socialists) and social inferiors (poorer people) seemed to be in the ascendancy and they increasingly felt abandoned by the Liberal governments.

  2. How far were Gandhi's actions after 1920 responsible for Indiagaining her independence in 1947?

    The die-hards at Westminster in 1919 (such as Churchill and Lord Lloyd) claimed that Dyer's actions were justified, and that Indian nationalism was due to Montagu's failure to suppress it in the bud, an unreasonable assumption according to T.O. Lloyd, who believed the "Indian nationalist movement had been growing for

  1. The development of nationalist movements in Southeast Asia

    he who headed the mission to Washington used his influence to have the bill rejected on the ground that its stipulations on the continuation of American military facilities after independence would be contrary to Philippine national dignity. He went to Washington himself, arranged for a new bill, the Tydings-McDuffie Act,

  2. Is Legalization a Realistic Alternative to the War on Marijuana?

    She states that the United States government allocates over one billion dollars to produce and market anti-marijuana campaigns (23). She also avows that it costs the taxpayers over five billion dollars to arrest and prosecute marijuana offenders (21). However, Swisher reveals the most appalling of all expenses.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work