• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21
  22. 22
    22
  23. 23
    23
  24. 24
    24
  25. 25
    25
  26. 26
    26
  27. 27
    27
  28. 28
    28
  29. 29
    29
  30. 30
    30
  31. 31
    31
  32. 32
    32
  33. 33
    33
  34. 34
    34
  35. 35
    35
  36. 36
    36
  37. 37
    37
  38. 38
    38
  39. 39
    39
  40. 40
    40
  41. 41
    41
  42. 42
    42
  43. 43
    43
  44. 44
    44
  45. 45
    45
  46. 46
    46
  47. 47
    47
  48. 48
    48
  49. 49
    49
  50. 50
    50
  51. 51
    51
  52. 52
    52
  53. 53
    53
  54. 54
    54
  55. 55
    55

Malta at the turn of the 19th Century.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Malta at the turn of the 19th Century. In 1530 under the surveillance of the Grand Master L'Isle D'Adam, the Order of St.John came to Malta and after 267 years the Order under Grand Master Hompesch left the Maltese Islands. The knights managed to change the island from one dependant upon agriculture to one economically stable. In fact, they gave to our islands great stability, as the military order gave security and safety by means of various fortifications and the development of the marvellous Grand Harbour. During this time we had an increase in the population of the islands, which reached that of 80,000 people. One can also mention the social stability brought by the order, as various projects were carried out, including the development of new towns, new fortified city, new water supply system (Aqueducts), more jobs created such as corsair, building, cultivation of cotton and last but not least trade. During these times there were 3 authorities, which had their own prisons, law courts and jurisdiction over a number of people in Malta. These authorities were, the Order of St.John, the Inquisition that protected the Christian Church from heresy etc. and the Church. The last two had their own patentees, law courts and prisons, an example being the church prison in Birgu. Amongst these authorities one could note several quarrels and arguments. Those people under the authorities of the Inquisition and the Church paid no taxes and had no guard duties. However the Order was neutral and the knights came from various countries. In fact there were some conflicts especially between French and Spanish Knights, as there were numerous. During these times there was also a slow rise in the Bourgeoisie. The education here in Malta was limited, and one could attend either the church schools or the local schools known as the Universita. Few Maltese, also went abroad to Sicily in order to further their studies. ...read more.

Middle

Maitland had more than one job and Malta was just one of the many. Special and particular needs of the Maltese were neglected to be sacrificed for the needs of Britain as the motherland of the Mediterranean. In 1824 Sir Thomas Maitland died. The Maltese knew him as King "Tom", as he was autocratic and very despotic in his manners. He was arrogant in his attitude as he dismissed the lawyers and doctors. This can be noticed in the changes he made, were he took more care to the English demands than to those made by the Maltese. Constitutional Aspirations Under Governor Ponsonby who replaced Maitland in the span of 1827-1836, Malta experienced some prosperity, due to the ships that entered the ports before going to the Greek war of Independence, even if it was on a short time basis. Opposition on the island was being organised, evidence being Camillo Sciberras who set-up the Comitato Generale. It consisted of high-class people and the bourgeoisie. The comitato didn't like what Maitland had done for Malta, as these people were not treated well by the administration. Maybe the reason for their treatment was because they weren't pro-English, and this cancelled their demand of having a say in the government. On 1st April 1835 a Constitution was issued, and these consisted of a council of members, 4 of them already held an office (ex-officio) while the governor chose the other three. The ex-officio members were the senior military officer (British), the chief secretary of the state (British), the Bishop (Maltese) and the Chief Justice (Maltese). The other three members were all merchants, where two of them were Maltese and the other was British. Notice that these people were not elected but chosen by the government, and hence indirectly they weren't representing the citizens. They were there to advise and to assist and not to make laws. They could hold discussions and voting but the governor wasn't forced to accept their proposals. ...read more.

Conclusion

The followers of this party were sometimes considered to be biased and fickle, especially when new legal institutions were imposed on the Maltese. The leader of the Riformisti was Sigismondo Savona who had attended to the Royal Military Asylum in Chelsea. He also had experienced the British army and served as a regiment's schoolmaster. He considered himself to be a liberal patriot and the preacher of social continuous change. His ideas were expressed in the newspaper called Public Opinion. The landed aristocracy, i.e. the nobles, the business people (because of the trade in port) and the workers (port workers, fortification etc) saw the British as their employees thus preferred to support the Riformisti. Even though it can be seen as an anti-national position, the citizens did what favoured them, thus saw the English as a reliable employment promise and preferred them form the local educated people that in return didn't proof what they preached. Besides the Anti-Riformisti made use of the Italian and totally ignored the Maltese language that was considered to be useless for educational purposes. The challenge to combine the Maltese by means of making them pro-British and hence decreasing Italian influence was complicated and had several suppositions. In 1883 we had a change in franchise, the main being the money rent on property per year. This meant that the authorization depended upon the money and not upon the level of education and academic knowledge a person had. This lead to a problem where the people in the council were not educated and the Anti-Riformisti who were the educated and didn't possess a lot of money found themselves in a critical position. As revenge Mizzi's party had urged imbeciles people to be elected and this lead to revise this franchise in the Knutsford Constitution and the parties participated in the elections that followed. In 1891 we had the unity of Savona and the followers of Mizzi under the Partito Unionista that became the government of that time. This party separated in 1893 and the Partito Nazionale under Fortunato Mizzi and the Partito Popolare under Savona were formed. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. The Word 'Hacker' To the popular press, "hacker" means someone who breaks into ...

    Computers are precise and methodical. Hacking is something you do with a gleeful laugh. In our world some of the most characteristic solutions are not far removed from practical jokes. IBM was no doubt rather surprised by the consequences of the licensing deal for DOS, just as the hypothetical "adversary"

  2. 'THE SEPERATION OF POWERS: FACT OR FICTION UNDER THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION?'

    The judiciary would be limited by the legislature, as only the legislature would be empowered to create new law. The legislature could create law, but had no direct powers to apply it. In the UK, the role of the executive is largely assigned to the ministers of the Government, and perhaps to the civil service and the police.

  1. Peace and Justice

    Another example of peace relying on justice is depicted by the anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress, Nelson Mandela. With his efforts in removing apartheid, despite some of the risks he encountered such as speaking his mind out against the matter, and being sentenced to life imprisonment,

  2. "The Unknown Citizen": Auden's Satire of the State"

    However, statistics do not show peoples feelings and emotions, but in this government that does not matter. Throughout the poem Auden evidently expresses his feelings towards our society and government, thus creating a sense of critism, and irony. Through this poem, the reader can patently distinguish how Auden, the poet, feels towards this subject.

  1. "The Colonisation of Africa was Inevitable in the Late Nineteenth Century" Discuss.

    had to be found, and Africa, being the only untouched territory on the globe, presented itself as a prime target for these economic advancements. These factors, inevitably directed the attention of interest-fulfillment seeking groups to Africa, the only place left of accomplishing their economic goals.

  2. How far is it true to say that 'having made Italy', Italian governments were ...

    The new steady and secure government allowed them to settle because there was no longer an air of political controversy that led to things like riots, and with peoples minds off revolution and other national issues, they could return to focussing on their own lives and working hard to provide for their families.

  1. Define and discuss an autocratic system of government - While most essays are likely ...

    together all those that do not meet the criteria of democracy as autocratic. Malaysia is a classic example of a developing country that has relatively free democratic elections without fail yet has the stigma of being autocratic. Features such as a tightly controlled media by the government and preventive detention laws present such a case.

  2. How successful were Ferdinand and Isabella in laying the foundations of Spain's Golden Age?

    The use of the Santa Hermandades in 1476 were to act as a royal police force, although very harsh, ensured order in the localities of Castile. The corregidores helped establish royal control to report the state of the area without interference from members of the Church and the nobility.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work