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Modern World Study - China since 1949

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History coursework essay- Modern World Study: CHINA SINCE 1949 Why does the Chinese government at the start of the twenty-first century refuse to give its people democratic rights despite encouraging private enterprise in industry, commerce and agriculture and how do you see this situation developing in the next few years? For thousands of years, China has endured wars, rebellions, reforms, revolutions, trials, tribulations and a great deal more. But despite its troubled history, it remains one of the leading world powers in the twenty-first century. ...read more.


The second dynasty, the Shang dynasty, was established when Cheng Tang the Completer, as he is now known, overthrew the tyrannical last ruler of Xia, restoring a virtuous and humane government to the empire. The last of the three ancient dynasties, the Zhou dynasty, ruled China for an incredible 866 years, from 1122 to 256 BC. Many believe that the Zhou dynasty was the beginning of Chinese tradition, including Herrlee G. Creel, who quoted, "It would probably be generally agreed, for most practical purposes that the Chinese tradition may be said to have begun with the Zhou." ...read more.


In this context heaven did not mean a personal god but a cosmic all-pervading power. Most historians today agree that the theory the Mandate of Heaven was an invention of the Zhou to justify their overthrow of the Shang. The king, after all, was the father of his people, and paternal authority was the basic cement of Chinese society from earliest times. Rebellion against a father, therefore, needed extraordinary justification. These principles seem to still apply in China and you can tell that because the Chinese government believe in only having one ruler and don't seem to want to change. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/ancient_china/shang.html http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.HTM http://www.warriortours.com/intro/history/shang/ http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/texts/shu-jing.html ...read more.

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