Resisitance To Aparthied.
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RESISITANCE TO APARTHIED THE ANC 1912-1949 1912-1930: the ANC was out of touch with the needs of the people The ANC was essentially out of touch with the mood and needs of the general African population and therefore did little to improve the lives of ordinary African people. 1930s: internal disorganisation and police harassment During the 1930s the ANC became even less active as a result of internal disorganisation as well as police harassment. 1937: time of change 1937 marked the beginning of a transitional period in African politics. At this point, the ANC recognised the need to adopt a more assertive role in African politics. 1940: Dr Xuma takes over In 1940, Dr Xuma became the new leader of the ANC. He restructured the organisation and tried to make it more efficient. But he did not try to broaden the membership of the ANC by drawing in the ordinary people. It remained an organisation that represented the interests of the elite. 1943: The formation of the Women's League 1944: The formation of the Youth League It was only with the formation of the ANC Youth League in 1944 that a more aggresive and mass-based approach was used.
As Africanists, they were opposed to any collaboration with any organisations that were not made up of Africans. Sharpeville On March 21, 1960 the Pan-Africanist Congress organised a protest against the pass laws. They planned to lead large crowds of people to the local police stations to hand in their passes and offer themselves up for arrest. A large crowd gathered outside the police station in Sharpeville (near Vereeniging). The police fired on the crowd, killing 69 people and wounding 180. The pass laws Until 1959, all black men had to carry passes. In 1959 this law was extended to black women as well. The aim of a pass book was to control the movement of black people into certain areas. If a black person wanted to move to the city or find a job, permission for this had to be stamped in the pass book. If there was no permit, the person would be arrested immediately. Millions of South Africans were arrested under the pass laws. This had the effect of criminalising millions of ordinary South Africans.
* The Rivonia Trial and the imprisonment of the ANC leaders broke the power of MK and the ANC inside South Africa. * The Government introduced even harsher legislation to suppress any further violent resistance. THE RISE OF BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS * In the 1970s, under the leadership of Steve Biko, a new movement called Black Consciousness arose. * The Black Consciousness Movement focussed on pride in being black and encouraged blacks to move away from a position of dependence on whites. * Steve Biko himself was arrested by the security police in 1977 and brutally tortured to death in detention. THE SOWNTO RIOTS 1976 * On June 16, 1976, 20,000 students marched through Soweto in protest against the use of Afrikaans in schools. * The police fired on the crowd. * Hector Peterson was the first black schoolchild to die. He was 13 years-old. * The students responded violently, and unrest swept through the country. Although the riots were eventually crushed by the police, they had more important results: * They were the single biggest challenge to the government and its system of apartheid. * The government could not ignore the unrest. * In many ways, the riots were a major turning point that marked the beginning of the end of apartheid.
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