• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Role of political action commitees

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What is the role of Political Action Committees (PACs)? > Intro. Definition of PACs - a separate campaign fund of a p.g. or a fund of a group formed primarily for the purpose of giving money to candidates. They are non - party organisations, although some do give to parties as well as individual candidates. > Early History. First PAC established by unions in the 1940's. 1963 Business Industry PAC, followed later by AMPAC (AMA) to fight "socialised medicine". > 1971 FECA and Amendments of 1974. Big spur to PACs. After Watergate era (Fat Cats giving money to Nixon) individual donations limited, but PACs were not limited in the total level of giving (just $5000 to any single campaign). This gets round the legal limits on direct contributions to candidates. PACs can receive such finance provided no single donation is above $5000. > 1975 Sun Oil Case. Federal Elections Commission ruled that corporate PACs were legal. > 1976 Buckley v. ...read more.

Middle

In 2000 election 40% of candidates campaign funds came from PACs. Leaders in Congress get most of the money. Often reverse lobbying takes place- Congressmen lobbying PACs for money. most controversial form of spending is on "independent expenditure" (for /against a candidate). Leads to negative advertising. Senator Lloyd Bentson said "These so-called independent groups...reap the advantages of lies and distortion and then force the candidate to spend funds to set the record straight". > Voting in Congress. Common Cause has found clear correlations between PAC contribution and votes on Bills in Congress. But recent research (Larry Sabato - 'PAC Power') has suggested there is little evidence for this (usually vote because of constituents, ideology, party, leaders, influence of White House). Also little evidence to suggest buying of votes in Congressional Committees. > The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (McCain-Feingold) 2002 was passed by President Bush to limit the actions of PACs (sceptics would claim that this related to the fact that PAC money was higher for Democrats than Republicans). ...read more.

Conclusion

The biggest Republican 527 is Progress for America. Recent research suggests that 527s replaced some, but not the majority of soft money. In 2004 the big three 527 groups raised a total of $186m, almost half the $405m raised by all 527 groups. In 2004 smaller anti-Kerry 527 groups 'Swift Boat Vets' and 'POWs for Truth' hurt the Democratic presidential campaign. Note also the effective use of the internet in 2004 and 2006 to boost small donations, and the bundling of hard money contributions by the Bush campaign in 2000 through the Bush Pioneer bundling programme, i.e., instead of handing over a cheque for $100,000 to a candidate's party from a business corporation or trade union (soft money), you hand a candidate 50 cheques of $2,000 each from different people (hard money). This is called bundling and gets around the BCRA ban on six figure soft money contributions to parties. > Recent Moves for Reform. Every year there are further suggestions for reform (including banning PACs, reducing funding). However surveys show that most people prefer PACs, rather than having to pay for campaigns through taxation (Time/CNN poll). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. Is the Media an independent political actor?

    and they lost support from The Times, The Telegraph, The Daily Mail and of course the Sun to Tony Blair. The Murdoch-owned Sun turned on the Tory's, personally attacking Major with headlines such as "NOW WE'VE ALL BEEN SCREWED BY THE CABINET"7, in light of the economic crisis with the Exchange Rate Mechanism.

  2. Pressure Groups.

    Page 5 Question 3 - My personal opinion is stated here whether I think Democracy needs pressure groups. It is essential for a country to maintain a democratic society where everybody's views are taken into account, in order to keep law and order in society.

  1. Why is corruption so prominent in the contemporary Latin American political scene?

    Sharpe and Simoes found many historical explanations for the high level of political corruption that exists in Latin America, which can trace their roots back to the days of the Spanish and Portuguese colonialism and the feudal system that they brought with them from Europe and forced onto Latin American society.

  2. Civil Service Reform.

    A total of 54,000 civil service jobs had been reviewed and 26,000 posts lost ...... Half the work had been put out to the private sector without any competing in-house civil service bid; in-house teams had, however, won 73 per cent of the contracts they had been allowed to tender for.'

  1. COMBATING CORRUPTION IN BANGLADESH: SOME STRATEGIES

    211 in different sectors of the government involving TK 111,534,98 crore (observer, 5th November, 2000) the X- prime Minister Sheikh Hasina was frank enough when she related here better experience of fighting against corruption and irregularities which plague the administration and society as a whole.

  2. Discuss the contributions to the academic field of public administration made by the following ...

    a change in the nature of the federal system, with a shift to "the national scene of the responsibility for most of the important policy decisions" in the economy and society at large. According to political scientist Alan Altshuler, Roosevelt had demonstrated " that patronage might be of great value

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work