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Summary of the Causes of the 1905 Revolution.

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Introduction

Please "consolidate" with the rest of relevant notes given earlier, tutorial notes etc. Please re-organise to your best ability. There is no gaurantee that this is the best answer. Summary of the Causes of the 1905 Revolution LONG-TERM DISCONTENT What each social groups suffered from and what they demanded from the Tsarist Regime The peasants�� grievances were many. They were generally impoverished; this was not helped periodic famines. The tremendous increase in peasant population from the mid 18th century had put much pressure on their land. They were hungry for more land, and were unhappy over the high taxes they had to pay, including redemption payments on their land . The industrial workers were aggrieved over their long hours of work, terrible working and living conditions. They wanted more political power for themselves. A discontented working class living and working in poor conditions could easily become volatile. Packed together in the cities, it became easier for them to undertake concerted action against the government. The more educated Russian workforce were invariably more capable of challenging the incumbent Tsarist Regime. The alienated intelligentsia, the middle class liberals wanted have a voice in the way they were governed. They wanted some form of elected national assembly. In fact, it was the growth of the middle classes that created the pressure for political change and for a more accountable and representative government. ...read more.

Middle

However their attempt to form a central zemstvo organization was prohibited by the government. In a sense the Russian government contributed to its problems by eliminating the very groups on which it could have relied to reinvigorate its administration and the people's loyalty. Short Term Causes - The impact of the Russo-Japanese War - Note the role in it of the peasants, industrial workers and the national minorities; the massacre of 'Bloody Sunday', the October Manifesto, the soviets and the Fundamental Laws. The ills of the Russian Agrarain Society By the mid 19th century, 1855, the agrarian economy of Russia was not able to sustain its state expenditure nor to provide the new technology necessary to maintain its great power status. Russian grain could not compete in its traditional European markets against the new, highly productive agriculture being introduced in the West. This was due in part to the the poor means of transportation in Russia. As a result the income of the landed nobility declined sharply and their indebtedness to the state reached crisis proportions by 1855. The economic bases of the traditional autocracy were disappearing. Alexander II who became tsar in 1855, emancipated the serfs with 1861 Statute of Emancipation. It gave the peasants legal emancipation and also the right to own their own land. But there were notable drawbacks: the peasants were forced to make very large redemption payments for any land other than their own personal allotments; this was in the interest of the debtor nobility. ...read more.

Conclusion

And even before the Russo-Japanese War broke out in January, 1904, the regime was in a very poor situation. When war resulted in abject defeat, Russia experienced a massive upheaval. The elements in the 1905 revolution There were really four uprisings involved: (I) the rising of the national minorities against Russification, especially in Poland and the Baltic provinces, coupled with demands for political and economic reforms; (2) the seizure by the peasants of what they saw as their land i.e. the nobles', Church's and state lands-due to the pressures of over- population; (3) the rising of the urban proletariat - through illegal strikes and demonstrations - against their employers and the autocracy; and (4) a campaign by the Union of Liberation based on the French banquet campaign of 1848 to force the regime to liberalize. The events of 1905 On the 9 January workers demonstrating against conditions were fired on by troops outside the Winter Palace. 'Bloody Sunday' was a tremendous blow to the Tsar's prestige and uprisings spread. In February decrees were issued by Nicholas II to try to quell opposition: they promised 'participation' by the people in government. In October there was a general strike by the railwaymen. The regime was now paralysed. On 17 October the Tsar issued the 'October Manifesto' which promised an elected Duma with legislative powers and civil liberties. Soviets (workers' councils) were formed in St. Petersburg and Moscow. During October- November there were large-scale peasant riots. In December the St. Petersburg Soviet was dispersed and Moscow street risings were put down by the Tsarist forces. 2400 words ...read more.

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