• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The rise of Fascism in Italy was the result of a conservative reaction to change. How far do you agree?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The rise of Fascism in Italy was the result of a conservative reaction to change. How far do you agree? The time between the World Wars was one of economic hardship and political unrest in most of Europe. Hitler and Mussolini were two men who led their respective states through this time in similar, yet differing ways. While some of the ideas were the same, the background, implementation and outcome of these ideas differed between Germany and Italy. The new unified state of Italy was far from being a great success in the years before 1914; the strain of the First World War on her precarious economy and the bitter disappointment of the "Mutilated Victory" after the Treaty of Versailles caused growing discontent. Between 1919 and 1922 there were five different governments all of which were unable to take the decisive action that the situation demanded. In 1919 Benito Mussolini founded the Fascist Party which won 35 seats in the 1921 elections. At the same time there seemed to be a real danger of a left-wing seizure of power. In an atmosphere of strikes and riots, the Fascists stages a "March on Rome" which culminated in King Emmanuel III inviting Mussolini to form a government in October 1922. He remained in effective power until 1943. Benito Mussolini, "Il Duce", was the founder of and leader of Italian Fascism. ...read more.

Middle

As a result, Italy signed the Treaty of London in 1915 and joined the Entente. However, the war proved longer and a more demanding struggle than most conservative interventionists had anticipated. There were huge casualties and the millions of conscripted men, forced out of their native region in order to serve a country whose interests they were only barely aware forged a huge resentment that was accumulated towards the distant governing class and towards the Socialist party and the mainly exempted workers it represented. Difficulties of the same magnitude were to be faced in the post-war years. Firstly, there was enormous dissatisfaction among all sectors of society to the so-called "Mutilated Victory". By not being able to achieve the expected goals after the war, even though Italy was among the victors, it discredited the regime and the political ideas associated with it, in this case, parliamentary and Liberal ones, so the ineffectiveness of the parliamentary politicians was blamed. Therefore, there was much resentment against the weak and unsuccessful foreign policy of the Italian government. An expression of this disappointment came in September 1919 when a band of alien patriots, under the command of Grabriele D'Annunzio, took Fiume, a port on the Dalmatian coast, by force and in defiance of the decision of the Paris Peace Conferences. There was also much economic distress after the war as Italian economy, as of all other European participants in the war, became weak. ...read more.

Conclusion

This made them feel forgotten by the industrial north, which represented the Socialists. Also the fact that much of the industrial workers did not go to the war and weren't driven out of their land as they were because workers were needed for war supplies added to this resentment. This is why much of the Fascist supporters were strong nationalists and ex-servicemen, hence this made the peasants feel more identified with them than with the Socialists and therefore its popularity increased. However, we can also explore the possibility that the Fascist regime was not an entirely conservative option, however, it was regarded as the most feasible conservative alternative to Socialism or Liberal decay. This reinforces the idea of the rise of Fascism as being the result of the Socialist rise, as without this "menace" Fascist ideas as in their pure existence would have been regarded as radical and thus, in case it would have reached power after all, it wouldn't be the results of a conservative reaction to change. In conclusion, the political crisis that was incubated since the unification of Italy and broke out in the post-war years gave rise to radical groups that, because of their lack of complete majoritarian support throughout the country, were overpowered by the Fascist party. The rise of this party was an overreaction to the menace of communism which was seen as too radical for the country by the majority, while Fascism, within its context, was seen as conservative, but when taken from that frame of reference it is observed as radical, as it afterwards proved to be. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. How was Post war (WWI) Italy affected economically, politically and socially?

    Yet Italy publicly was still a mass of divided beliefs, leading to the problem of which direction to take. Whilst many had regarded d'Annunzio's stand as a further point in the need for change they still saw fascism as the wrong approach.

  2. Why did Mussolini come to power in 1922?

    During 1922, Mussolini realised that the continuing Fascist violence was causing problems for the current government, especially with the socialists and the conservatives. Mussolini encouraged the squads to continue there violent ways but at the same time tried to distance himself from them to the conservatives in an attempt to gain some of their support.

  1. Japanese Political Timeline (1919).

    On different corners of the globe, this application of the totalitarian idea gave rise to a strong militaristic and expansionist idea which brought them together as allies in the World War II. To begin with, the first thing they need was a leader, a strong, charismatic leader that is capable of uniting the people.

  2. 'We have made Italy, now we must make Italians' How successful had the Liberal ...

    They were known as Syndicalists. There was discontent amongst the working class as the government had taken measures to suppress union activity. The Nationalist party had its origins in the fact that many Italians felt that the Liberal State had failed to build a proper Italian nation.

  1. "The first World War killed the Liberal Party" how far do you agree with ...

    party in terms of differences of opinions on the war and its handling. Asquith and his supporters were opposed to war and some MPs campaigned for peace. Asquith himself stayed very much out of war work and provided a weak leadership which was strongly criticised by the militant Conservatives, and

  2. What Are The Key Elements Of Thatcherism? To What Extent Was It A Reaction ...

    The consensus was that the unions were an important economic actor and so should be consulted on the formulation of economic policy. This assumption originated from the war, when the unions had played a valuable role in the war effort.

  1. Free essay

    Consider the view that the liberal government reforms 1906-1914 were more concerned with the ...

    the poor did need state help and were not in that position through their own moral drawbacks13. The growth of the Labour party can also take responsibility for many reforms passed in this revolutionary period concerning workers and those without work.

  2. The Negative Impact Of World War 1 On Italy: Weaknesses Of The Liberal State, ...

    For example, the Liberals alienated shopkeepers in June 1919 when they appeared to give-in to food rioters. The government requisitioned food supplies and set the low prices so the poor could afford it. However, the shopkeepers lost money and worried that a socialist precedent had been set for the future.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work