• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent did Nicholas II's Government introduce political and social reforms in the period 1906-1914

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Sophie Birkett To what extent did Nicholas II's Government introduce political and social reforms in the period 1906-1914 This question focuses on an evaluation of the social and political policies carried out by Stolypin and his Duma in 1906-1914. Stolypin's plans for the regeneration of Russia were based on counter terror and reform in a period after 1905 revolution up until the start of the First World War. In 1906, Stolypin became a newcomer to the Council of Ministers and he was appointed chairman in 1907. The Duma, which was brought about by the October Manifesto, was not a law-making parliament in the western sense and ministers were not accountable for it. The Tsar could dismiss it at will and manipulate the elections to influence its composition. In order to determine the success or otherwise of Stolypin's reforms, those reforms, namely Agrarian reform to stimulate the appearance of a class of prosperous land owning peasants; Political repression to counter terrorise revolutionary violence; decision to work with a suitably conservative assembly of the Duma; encouragement of migration to ...read more.

Middle

Crop yields remained poor and a rising population continued to put pressure on the land. The measures inforced by this reform soon lost their stimulus. Another view of Stolypin's was that counter-terror was also essential for the reconstruction of Russia. After being the ruthless governor of Saratov during the revolutionary year, he engaged in an oppressive war against violent political opposition. In 1907, an estimated 1,231 officials and 1,768 private citizens died in terrorist attacks. Stolypin then created his 'field courts martial', operating under Article 87 of the fundamental Laws, and carried out 1,144 death sentences from May 1907 to February 1908. In this period also 600 unions and 1000 newspapers were closed down. Stolypin's repressive measures against those involved in the 1905 revolution are generally held to have been effective in helping to restore order, especially in the countryside. Political assassinations in also dropped to 365 in 1908. After the failure of the first two Dumas, the more successful third and forth Dumas resulted from Stolypin's decision to work with an official conservative assembly and to revise the electoral laws. ...read more.

Conclusion

time of chaos during attempted revolution but also helped Russia develop into a represented assembly with more freedom of speech than before. Migration was also successful with never less than 200,000 peasants moving to Siberia and primary education increasing to incorporate 7.2million children. The policies were also unsuccessful in that they did not achieve all that was needed. Although the period after 1906 saw a more prosperous peasantry, helped by the state through loans etc, the central problems remained unsolved. Higher education was also not targeted, meaning that although a lot of the population was now literate, there was a lack of skills developed. Also while many of the peasants may have retained some loyalty to the regime, little was done to strengthen the loyalty of other classes, particularly in towns. These indications, along with the infamous Lena Goldfields Massacre, where in 1912 workers were massacred after petitioning for improved employment conditions, and the growing number of industrial strikes deemed 'political' in the months before war, show that the reforms introduced were although partially successful, not radical enough. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. Assess the contribution of Stolypin to the Stability of the Tsarist Regime.

    Stolypin's boldest measure was his peasant reform program. It allowed, and sometimes forced, the break-up of communes as well as the establishment of full private property.

  2. To what extent was Northumberland more successful in solving mid Tudor political problems than ...

    However, Northumberland was remarkable in his approach and attitude towards solving economic problems, acting with great ability and foresight. Although initially making similar economic mistakes to those of his predecessors, it is clear that Northumberland has considerable ability in both forming economic policy and promoting practical efficiency.

  1. Critically evaluate/assess the achievements of Sergei Witte and their consequences for the social groups ...

    which it could exploit the resources of China's northern territories, Korea Siberia. But all of this had a positive and negative result on Russia's social groups. Witte policy was to squeeze resources out of the peasants to pay for industrialization.

  2. Free essay

    Consider the view that the liberal government reforms 1906-1914 were more concerned with the ...

    children, followed by those effecting the old, those affecting the sick and those affecting the British workforce. January 1906, the liberal government won the general election in a landslide result. The Liberals won 401 whilst counting on the support of 29 labour members.

  1. How effective were the social reforms of the Labour Government of 1945-1951 in dealing ...

    Bevan also backed down with the GP's, agreeing to pay them a capitation per patient, rather just a basic salary.

  2. How has the role and impact of military rulers and civilian politicians differed in ...

    10.2 Mushrraf and Taliban: After 9/11, when US government clearly asked the government of Pakistan that whether they are on their side or are going to support Taliban, it became extremely difficiult for Pakistan to continue its support to Taliban.

  1. To what extents can the events of 1905 in Russia be considered a revolution.

    The assassination of the Czar in 1881 showed the deep gulf of antagonism which separated the Czar from the educated people in Russia. B. THE REIGN OF CZAR ALEXANDER III (1881--1894) AND MORE POLITICAL DISCONTENT Alexander II was succeeded by his son, Alexander III.

  2. The causes and the political and social consequences of the Dreyfus Affair in France

    THE HISTORIC CHRONOLGY OF THE AFFAIR. On December 19th, 1894, the trial of Alfred Dreyfus opened. The government Commissioner, the Commandant Brisset asked for it to be held "in camera". Maitre Demange acted for the defence of Alfred Dreyfus. On the 21st of December , Commandant Henry, of the secret

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work