• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19

What is Politics UK politics revision notes

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What is Politics? * The science and art of the government. * Who gets what, when and how? * The authoritative allocation of values. * The art of the possible * Obeying laws laid down by the government. * Politic is purely an exercise in restricting individual freedom. Types of politics- * Liberals - Exclusion of politics from personal life, freedom to do what you want as long as you aren't offending other people around you. * Free Market - Keep politics out of the economy; sell what you want for whatever prices. * Socialists - The state controls the economy. * Fascists - Totalitarian control over every aspect of people's lives. * Feminists - Gender relations, at home, at work and in the bedroom. * Green Politics - Politicised the environment. Power=Legitimacy=Authority * To have LEGITIMACY - the public accepts them as the true holder of their position * To have AUTHORITY - The rightful and legitimate use of power. Types of Authority- * Traditional - A long established custom (Hereditary Queen) * Charismatic - Compelling personal qualities (Hitler) * Legal Rational - Based on formed elections (Politicians elected) Topic 1 - Democracy: * Democracy first existed in Athens 2500 years ago * Demos - Greek, meaning for the people * Relied on "Direct Democracy" which involves the direct and continuous participation in government from the public * "Representative Democracy" which involves indirect government by the people through representatives elected by the people. * Full adult Franchise - All adults have the right to vote. * Secret Ballot - Avoids intimidation. * Fair Elections - Each vote should be fair and equal. * Regular Elections. * An effective choice of candidates and parties for voters. * A level playing field between rival parties and candidates. * A free and diverse media, enabling a wide variety of views. * "Liberal Democracy" * A form of representative democracy. ...read more.

Middle

o Rejection of privatisation of the Post Office and British Rail * No real reduction in over all spending * The state was re-structured rather than reined back * Pursued policies such as the poll tax * A blend of the free economy (neo-Liberalism) and the strong state (neo-Conservatism) * Sentiments of Nationalism and Patriotism (Falklands, Gulf War and Europe) * Strong believer of the Union and strong family values. * Based on the theories of Smith, Hayek and Freidrich. Conservatism- * Keeping things as they are i.e. a retention of status quo * Old Toryism and 19th Century Conservatism was suspicious and resistant to change, an anti-thesis to the revolution in France and America * Edmund Burke "Reflections to the Revolution in France" lays the foundations for modern Conservatism * Burkes Beliefs- * Attack on the values of the French Revolution * Reassertion of tradition * The organic society * Gradual Pragmatic Reform * Peel's Tomworth Manifesto 1837, was based on Burke's work and is created for the re-birth of Modern Conservatism * ARGUMENTS AGAINST- * Conservatives were suspicious of 'Age of Reason', a threat to traditional religious and secular authority * Liberalism was the ideology of he rising capitalist class (industrial revolution), Conservatism reflected the interests of the powerful landed classes. * Conservatives believe in: * A period of slow change is needed to avoid a massive social upheaval. * The lessons of the past act as a guideline for the future. * "We cannot know where we are, much less where we are going until we know where we have been" (Niskeet, Conservative) * Conservatism held its own in conflict with the Liberals in the 19th Century and then dominated the 20th Century as it adapted to change. * Accepted the principle of Keynesian demand management, the Welfare State, the mixed economic planning. Modern Conservatism- * Flexible pragmatism * Thatcher's legacy is a genuine monkey on the backs of the Conservatives * Major continued some of her work - privatizing the ...read more.

Conclusion

Dicey (1835-1922) is the main author * Enshrines principles such as natural justice, fairness and reasonableness Devolution- * Power is devolved from the centre, but unlike Federalism, it can be returned. * I.e. Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. * However, it is unlikely that power is returned, more likely that further powers will be given out, making the UK Semi-Federal. Constitutionalism- * The Govt. works within the understood rules of a constitution Codification- * Rules are written down in a single document Entrenchment- * Rules are written telling you how a constitution can be amended * i.e. in USA 2/3rds majority of the Senate and House of Representatives is needed in order to amend the constitution. Supremacy- * The constitution is the highest power Anti-Constitutionalism- * When people are against the idea that Government in which power is distributed and limited by a system of laws that must be obeyed by the rulers. Unconstitutional action- * When People don't follow the rules and regulations set down by the government Liberal Constitution- * A balance between governmental powers within parliament. Labour and the Jenkins Commission- The Demands of Charter 88- * A bill of Rights which reflects the first 10 amendments to the USA Constitution. * Freedom of information * A fair electoral system * A reformed democratic second chamber (house of lords) * A written Constitution The end of Parliamentary Sovereignty and the Unitary State- * Changes since 1997 have not really challenged Sovereignty, membership of the EU however clearly has. * The use of referenda, although not binding, does commit parliament. * The Human Rights Act, alters balance between Govt. and the Judiciary. * Devolution - English MP's have lost the responsibility for legislation in Scotland, but Scottish MP's have not in English constituencies * THE PAISLEY QUESTION Do we need a British Constitution? Purposes of a constitution: * Defines the limits on government * States basic laws * Distributes powers within a political system * Rights of the citizens * Fair and free elections * Defines sovereign territory ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    'First-past-the-post should be replaced as a method of electing political representatives.' Discuss.

    5 star(s)

    they give rise to a parliament of geographical representatives: MPs represent defined areas of cities, towns, or regions rather than just party labels. Many proponents of FPTP argue that true representative accountability depends upon the voters of one area knowing who their own representative is, and having the ability to re-elect, or throw them out, at election time.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Evaluate the case for using Referenda to decide important issues in the UK

    4 star(s)

    Popular consent is also a fair form of democracy as it is required when making a very important decision. A referendum can also help relieve a political deadlock. So when parliament is unable to agree to a referendum can result in a decision being made.

  1. Minority parties in Britain call for electoral reform whereas the two major parties tend ...

    and "one coalition government may be replaced by another during the life of a Parliament with no opportunity for the electors to be consulted in the matter" (Birch, 1991). It could be argued that a PR government discourages the "adversary party system" (Jones & Kavanagh, 1990)

  2. What Are The Key Elements Of Thatcherism? To What Extent Was It A Reaction ...

    The Thatcherite Conservatives disliked the welfare system because it was increasingly expensive and so needed high taxes, which were opposed by the right because they reduced incentives to work harder, and because reliance on state handouts reduces self-reliance.

  1. Assess the Impact of the First World War on British Politics by 1918.

    the vitality and unity of the party restored under Bonar Law a chance of a Conservative victory in 1915 was a possibility. However most would argue that in the long term the war caused the revival of Conservative fortunes. Their political ideology was better able to respond to the key

  2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the devolution process in Scotland and Wales?

    Polls in both Scotland and England conclude that the public find the situation unfair. For example, the legislation imposing top-up fees for English students was passed by only a small majority in Westminster. At the time opposition education secretary Tim Yeo argued that this low majority indicated that the passing

  1. Free essay

    Have modern Liberals abandoned individualism and embraced collectivism?

    It highlights the social aspect of human nature and portrays collective bodies or social groups as meaningful entities. Individualism is often associated with attempts to contract or minimising the state with a view to widening individual freedom and strengthening individual responsibility .This is reflected in the classical liberal preference for

  2. 'Conservative dominance in British Politics between 1885and 1902 was due to conservative strengths rather ...

    One of the most important factors in why the Conservatives were dominant in this period was due to the 'wide range of support from all social classes.' For example, the number of Conservative MPs in London went up from 35 to 51 between 1885 and 1895.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work