• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why did the British government decide to evacuate children from major cities in the early years of the Second World War?

Extracts from this document...


Why did the British government decide to evacuate children from major cities in the early years of the Second World War? The government of Britain thought of war may begin between Germany and Britain. From this they thought that Britain needed to protect its civilians from bombs and gas attacks. Children were protected by being evacuated from large cities to the country side were it was less likely for that area to get bombed or gassed. The German army invaded Poland on 1st September 1939 and Britain had tried to get Hitler to withdraw and hold peace, however this failed and on 3rd September Winston Churchill (Britain) declared war on Germany. From September 1939 to April 1940, nothing actually happened during this period. But children were evacuated. The first announcement made to evacuate was 31st August, 1 day before Germany invaded Poland. Britain had evacuated 1.5million children with in 3 days. During the phoney war children started to come back to their families. The phoney war was an attempt by Hitler, to push Britain and other European powers into backing down over Poland, as it had happened at the Munich in 1938. Technological improvements made the Second World War a very brutal war. The development of aircraft and motorised transport meant that attacks could be made quicker. Hitler had used blitzkrieg tactics against Poland and other countries in the west. This was the use of aircraft and tanks in attacks which were relying on speed and surprise. ...read more.


Later in 1944 when Germany begins a new wave of bombing tactics, V1 bombs and V2 rockets were introduced. The change of tactics by Germany caused the British government to decide that another evacuation should take place and it does. This was the last of the evacuation in Britain and this scheme saved thousands of civilian's lives. The government had been over exaggerating about the consequences of the war or what they should do about the war. They were especially exaggerating about the bombing raids by Germany. The British government had planned to have evacuated 3 million people within the first 4 days of the Second World War. However, the British government only managed to evacuate half the amount of they had planned, only 1.5 million in 3 days. This was a huge difference between the estimate and the amount of people that were actually evacuated. From this it can be seen that the British government was under suspicion of getting bombed heavily within the first few days of the Second World War. The British government was also afraid of gas attacks so every citizen had to have been given a gas mask in order to be protected by this attack. The government had supplied over 38million gas masks all round he country. Most of these were supplied to the people that lived in highly populated areas such as London and Birmingham and also the evacuees even though they were going to a safe area where it was less likely to get bombed or gassed. ...read more.


Industrial targets, such as motor works and aero-engine factories got destroyed. The bombers also destroyed the city's cathedral which shows the hard heartiness of Germany. This gave a chance to the British government to use this as an example of propaganda at the beginning of the war the government was expecting to get attacked from the air and then took precautions to protect its people. Air raid wardens were appointed to make sure the black out was being followed properly and to prepare people for air raids. When air raids occurred the air raid wardens would let the people know it was coming air raid sirens would go off. When they heard the siren they would go outside the house into another shelter. Anderson shelters were most common but some preferred other places. An Anderson shelter was big enough to fit a whole family in. at the end of the blitz, the summer of 1941, about 43 000 people had died and millions left homeless. To conclude, I think that the government chose the right scheme at the right time to save tens of thousands of lives. Evacuation was introduced by the government because they thought it would be safe for the civilians of Britain. Also, because they thought that Germany would attack Britain by bombs and gas attacks. This meant that the people of Britain were in danger if evacuation wasn't established. So the children, teachers, mothers and disabled people were evacuated to safer places all around Britain. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Politics essays

  1. This assignment identifies and discusses the major social and political trends expected to affect ...

    residents to pay their rates and service charges and/or mortgage bond instalments. She states that this major problem weakens the new democratic order and the financial system and that as long as urban consumers do not pay for services, the funding base of South Africa's major cities will remain weak.

  2. There are many different issues of disagreement between the British government and American ...

    These comities encouraged voting and convinced colonists their rights were in danger. Reaction to the Townshend Duties signalled the worsening of the relationship between British government and American colonists. What Townshend and parliament had down in the revenue act was to revive fears and resentment in a people already convinced

  1. Which major domestic and international factors made German unification possible?

    However although Honecker had been removed from office it was still not enough to recover the people's confidence in the SED. Between September 1989 and February 1990, membership fell from 2,300,000 to just 890,000. The SEDs unwillingness and inability to contemplate reform, coupled with inept and incompetent leadership led to its fall.

  2. Decentralization and development of modern local government systems in Eastern Europe

    This situation produced various outcomes for different municipalities. Larger local municipalities assumed the position of majority owners, smaller ones retained less influence, and some practically assumed the position of clients that contracted provision of services with providers. Those local governments that own enough shares to influence the strategy and operation

  1. In what ways did the government attempt to hide the effects of the blitz ...

    The ministry of information also used the technique of propaganda to great effect, as they could not completely hide the effects of the war, this technique allowed them to distort the war events by putting a spin on them like the photograph of the people whose houses had been destroyed

  2. The Belfast Blitz.

    However, as the report was written in June 1939, the fact that the German's had entered France by 1941 was not taken into account. This resulted in the Government's relaxed attitude, which reflected onto the public. Dance halls, theatres and cinemas remained open on the outbreak of war in contrast to mainland Britain.

  1. Describe the part played by India in the Second World War.

    two nuclear bombs on Japan, forcing them to surrender, so I think USA was very important in defeating the Japanese in Asia. The relationship between Britain and the congress party: The congress party was set up trying to put pressure on the Raj's government to allow more Indian influence when ruling India.

  2. Explain why the government was concerned about the morale (spirit and attitude) of the ...

    The second source indicates the government had severe problems on which they had to act against. Britain at the time was a particularly patriotic country and the fact the King and Queen were booed when visiting a site destroyed by bombing is a very serious worry, especially because the government

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work