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Why Summer Never Came to Russia.

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Introduction

Why Summer Never Came to Russia:->During the early part of the twentieth century, many reforms and revolutions took place in Russia, which climaxed in the two revolutions of 1917, after a failed revolution in 1905. The first in March saw the abdication of the tsar, Nicolas II, and the hasty construction of the Provisional Government formed to restore some order in Russia. The members of this government were chosen out of the Duma, the old governmental assembly in Russia, and other upper class conservatives. None of the officials chosen had any links or ties with the proletariat (the working classes). This Provisional Government was short-lived and was replaced by the Bolsheviks by November of that same year, due to the Bolshevik's popular support in the urban centres and army and good leadership. The Bolsheviks exploited the deteriorating situation and shifted the balance of power away from the Provisional Government, causing its downfall. At the time of the tsar's abdication, popular support went for the Soviets, political agitators, due to their support of the workers and soldiers. The Soviet was the term to describe the grouping of the Soviets in cities, comprised of Mensheviks, Social Revolutionaries, who were moderates, with only a few Bolsheviks, who were the extreme leftist radicals. The Duma formed the Provisional Government to keep the Soviets from taking power. ...read more.

Middle

Confiscation of all landed estates. Nationalisation of all lands in the country, the land to be disposed of by the local Soviets of Agricultural Labourers' and Peasants' Deputies. The organisation of separate Soviets of Deputies of Poor Peasants. The setting up of a model farm on each of the large estates (ranging in size from 100 to 300 dessiatines, according to local and other conditions, and to the decisions of the local bodies) under the control of the Soviets of Agricultural Labourers' Deputies and for the public account5 The simple statements as "End war and land for all" transferred to the Bolsheviks the support of the peasants who had previously given their support to the Social Revolutionaries and presented the Bolsheviks with the endorsement of the soldiers who were tired of the war. The cause for the Provisional Government's nervousness lay in Lenin's thesis on how to deal with the government: 3) No support for the Provisional Government; the utter falsity of all its promises should be made clear, particularly of those relating to the renunciation of annexations. Exposure in place of the impermissible, illusion-breeding "demand" that this government, a government of capitalists, should cease to be an imperialist government.6 Seeing the immense enthusiasm the theses generated when they were presented to the Russian people gave the Bolsheviks a clear view of what they had to do: take over the government. ...read more.

Conclusion

1 From the Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies ("Izvesiia" Revoliutsionnoi Nedeli, No. 7, March 3, 1917, page 1) quoted by Kerensky The Russian Provisional Government (Stanford University Press, California 1961) Vol 1 pg.136 2 Novoe Vrembya quoted by Marc Ferro The Russian Revolution of 1917 (Prentice Hall Inc, 1972) p. 85 3 Editorial in Russkiia Vedomosti No 65 March 22, 1917 p.3 quoted by Kerensky, The Russian Provisional Government Vol 2 p.526 4 Appeal to the Provisional Government concerning the Land Question (VVP, No 38, April 23, 1917, p.1) ibidem 5 marx.org 1997 HTTP: www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/apr/04.htm 6 ibidem 7 Curtis, John Shelton The Russian Revolution of 1917 (Florida 1982) p.41 8 From the Resolutions of the First Ukrainian Military Congress May 5-8 1917, On the Ukrainian Army quoted by Kerensky The Russian Revolution Vol 1 p.374 9 Soviet Resolution on the National Question quoted by Kerensky The Russian Revolution of 1917 Vol 1 p.318 10 'Lenin's Letters of August 30 and September 12-14 and 13-14 to the Bolshevik Central Committee on the Unexpected Aid given to Bolshevism by the Kornilov Affair and Urging a Seizure of Power' quoted by Kerensky The Russian Revolution of 1917 Vol 3 p.1695 11 'Izvestiia on the Bolshevik Use of and Activities in the Soviets' quoted by Kerensky The Russian Revolution of 1917 Vol 3 pp1765-1766 2 ...read more.

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