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Why were there two Revolutions in Russia in 1917? Why did the Bolsheviks Triumphs?

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Introduction

Michael Cuthell 12PT Page 1 of 1 February '03 Why were there two Revolutions in Russia in 1917? Why did the Bolsheviks Triumphs? Throughout 1917 Russia, the country had suffered from many problems, firstly the issue of the two revolutions. The revolution of February 1917 was the first of the two. To most historians, it was referred to as the 'popular' revolution, or the 'spontaneous' revolution. This was due to the fact that most of the class representative parties wanted and indeed took part in the revolution. The representative parties did not endorse many of the Tsar's decisions; many people of the Russian public also felt this way. With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, meant that Russian living conditions were gradually fading in the most appalling conditions. The Tsar's decisions pretty much isolated nearly every party of every class right the way across Russia. Many members within the social classes were losing faith in the leaders of their country, and also the members of the Duma realised their views and ideas wouldn't been seen through by the Tsar, even if this meant restoring confidence and loyalty from the Russian public. One of the major reasons for the downfall and breakdown of the Tsar and the Tsarist regime was down to the war. Many of the Russian troops were unable to provide sufficient support to hold of enemy soldiers because, those who were sent to the front were completely ill-equipped, usually one rifle between three, this lead to the lack of advances through enemy lines. By the turn of 1915 the number of defeats was stacking up and continually rising. The majority of the country no longer supported the war effort. After this recent failure to achieve what the Tsar had hoped for, he realised that he had to be there, experience things first hand, to know what was going on and how he could avoid risky situations. The Tsar chose to intervene and join the soldiers at the Front. ...read more.

Middle

The introduction of Order No.1 proved that there was no bond of trust between the soldiers/ peasants to the Provisional Government. The size of the Soviet party had grown dramatically. The numbers of party representatives were continually on the increase. This meant that they could gain more of a majority over the Provisional Government. In March 1917, the idea of 'Dual Power' came into action. This meant that both the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviets would accept joint responsibility of running Russia together. However, the Provisional Government took charge but could not make any drastic changes, unless first consulting and gaining the approval of the Petrograd Soviet. This gave the impression that the Soviet had more power over the running of Russia. On 3rd April 1917, Lenin returned to Petrograd, and on the 4th he issued his 'April Theses,' He urged the faithful Bolsheviks to follow his Theses, the initial idea of Lenin's 'April These,' was to add to the campaign for 'Peace, Bread and Land,' and 'All Power to the Soviet,' although Lenin wanted this new revolutionary government, as did the Bolsheviks, some became annoyed that Lenin had returned to Russia after eleven years of exile, and running things. They felt that Lenin had been forgotten, and was no help because he had no authority. In his Theses Lenin described how this war was a 'Predatory Capitalist War,' because the Provisional Government are capitalists and therefore imperialists. In order for 'Revolutionary Defencism' to be justified; all power would have to be passed to the workers/ peasants, all annexations would have o be renounced and how peace could only emerge if the Provisional Government was overthrown. The Provisional Government, had suffered from many problems from its very beginnings, this was mainly due to the fact that the Tsar had left many of the problems. If these problems were not solved immediately it would result in the end of the Provisional Government and further downfall of Russia. ...read more.

Conclusion

Eventually the Bolshevik Central Committee were over won, led by Trotsky, the new MRC, of the Petrograd Soviets organised the rising. October 24th, Bolsheviks newspapers became banned in name of Kerensky. The MRC used this as an excuse to inflame the idea of a coup in self- defence. On the 23rd October 1917, the second revolution began. It continued until 25th October, similar to the revolution that took place in February it was very well planned. Within only three days the capital had been over run and captured. Kerensky was on his own, no soldiers supported him, the Red Guards continued to take over railways stations and buildings in the capital. Eventually the Winter Palace had been seized. The 'Second All- Russian Congress of Soviets' was held on the 25th October. Lenin wanted approval of his new government from the Congress. Lenin was not guaranteed a majority approval, when the entirely Bolsheviks government was presented, however when the Capital was seized this infuriated the Mensheviks and SR's, who left voluntarily. The Bolsheviks were left to run Russia alone. With the former Romanov rule and the Provisional Government, by taking and continuing leadership of Russia, had they accepted the same fate? Both leading powers had failed to please all classes within Russia. They both lost the faith and support of the Russian people, and with the gradual loss of authority they had perished as the dominant figure. Both had failed to solve the crisis in Russia. As the various different parties grew in size, their support grew too. The unity of the parties joining in the 'Popular' February Revolution cleared the 300years of Romanov rules ending the rule of the Tsar, this left rule open. As it had not been highly planned, there was the issue of what to do next? Once the Provisional Government had taken the place of Tsar, then failing to meet the country's issue and demands, the Bolsheviks as a new party gained more and more support from the people, seized the moment to take power. The Bolsheviks had succeeded in the takeover of Russia. ...read more.

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