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- Marked by Teachers essays 12
- Peer Reviewed essays 38
wrote..."once the ego has developed the infant no longer makes unreasonable demands on the caretaker, such as demanding food when they are out walking". The SUPER-EGO develops at around the age of five, this works on the "Morality Principle" our conscience warning us against allowing the ID to control us, D E James (1970 Pg 275) explains..." the Super-egos function is to maintain standards of behaviour at a level demanded by society and its effect is to produce a feeling of guilt when it is not observed".
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Researchers need to consider how things like sampling, recruiting participants, developing and/or translating the instruments, and disseminating findings are affected by culture, race and ethnicity. This paper will compare and contrast the variables of sampling and observation within multicultural and traditional research. Definitions Before a comparison of sampling and observation can be done, an understanding of what the individual variables are, needs to take place. According to Doordan (Doordan, 1998), sampling can be defined as the selection process to find a group of individuals from the entire population to participate in a research study.
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How do id, ego and superego, each contribute to Freud's concept of analytical psychology? What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of this framework?
N 1994) "I want what I want and I want it now!" The id demands immediate gratification, and will settle for nothing less. And because the world doesn't always meet the desires of the infant, the id comes pre-packaged with an operative process, the Primary Process. (Hayes N 1994). If the thirsty infant doesn't get mother's milk, he creates a fantasy in which he does receive it (an act of wish-fulfillment ). Because the id is entirely irrational, there is no difference between the fantasy version and the "real" version. The id, in conventional morality, is immoral.
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Antidepressant drugs are classified as stimulants, and were also introduced in the 1950s. As well treating depression, they have been used in the treatment of panic disorder, specific phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder and eating disorders. These drugs include monoamine oxidase inhibitor, tricyclics, tetracyclic such as Prozac and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Again, there are side-effects to using the drugs. MAIO's require adherence to a special diet. Amine rich food must be avoided and continuing eating these foods causes cerebrum haemorrhage. Both MAIO's and tryclics are associated with the heart block, dry mouth, blurred vision and urinary retention.
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Freud claimed to have discovered 'scientific method by which the unconscious can be studied.' What according to Freud, is the unconscious, what was its role within the human mind, and how did he set about studying it? What was scientific about his metho5 star(s)
The superego represented our conscience and counteracted the id with a primitive and unconscious sense of morality. This primitive morality is to be distinguished from an ethical sense, which is an egoist property, since ethics requires eligibility for deliberation on matters of fairness or justice. The superego, Freud stated, is the moral agent that links both our conscious and unconscious minds. The superego stands in opposition to the desires of the id. The superego is itself part of the unconscious mind; it is the internalisation of the worldview and norms that a child absorbs from parents and peers.
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The psychoanalytic approach to psychology is based on the system of psychoanalysis, developed by Sigmund Freud (1859 - 1939). Freud was interested in studies of the unconscious mind and mental illness5 star(s)
According to Freud, everything we do, why we do things, who we are and how we became like this are all related to our sexual drive. Childhood sexual experiences will determine our personality in adult life. Freud outlined 5 stages of sexual development. In each stage the libido, the energy from the love instinct, Eros, fixates on different parts of the body, focusing on sexual pleasure on that specific part. Differences in the way sexual pleasure is obtained in each stage will lead to differences in adult personalities.
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An impressive study which shows the power that people can have over our behaviour was carried out by Milgram (1963). He set up an experiment in which volunteer research participants were required to give increasingly painful electric shocks to another person, as part of a study which they thought was about learning. The participants were aware of the danger involved and that it could prove fatal. They could hear the other person in the room next-door, who they had seen being strapped to the chair, giving out loud cries of pain, and then suddenly becoming silent, as if they had just died.
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The theory I am going to discuss is Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Approach. His theory of moral development is concerned with how the child's moral knowledge and understanding change with age. Piaget saw morality as any system of rules, which governs interaction between people. The methods of investigation he used to develop his theories were, he looked at the way children imposed rules in their games. He used games to study the development of children's moral development as he thought that by studying rules in the context of a game, he could study the child's spontaneous though directly.
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He believed that all human behaviour is controlled by drives, which he relates to human instincts. Freud insisted that there are two forces feeding our instinctual urges with energy; the Libido and the Death Instinct; the Libido being a sexual energy and the Death Instinct being more of an aggressive energy. According to Freud, the adult human mind is made up of three different parts and levels of awareness; the unconscious mind, which he named the 'Id'; the preconscious mind, which he named the 'Superego', and the conscious mind, which he named the 'Ego'.
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How useful is psychoanalytical approach to understanding a person? Choose one of Freud's case studies. How credible and useful do you find Freud's way of making sense of this person's problem? Which, if any, limitations of the theory do you see?3 star(s)
Freud focused a lot of his workings on childhood development and split the development into stages. The first stage is known as the Pre-Oedipal stage. He suggested that all human beings are born with certain instincts, such as the need to eat or drink. These needs are necessary for the biological development of any human being. When these needs are satisfied both satisfaction and relief are felt. Freud believed that at a very early age, a child's sexuality is realised, this can be activated by the sucking of a mother's breast. This feeling is then rediscovered in later life through various experiences.
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Psychology Coursework. In this piece of coursework I will be devising a test to see whether organisation can improve memory based on the work of Bower at al (1969). There are 3 mnemonics to help improve memory.
This shows how the category headings served as cues improve recalls. Imagery Another thing that has been found to improve memory is the use of imagery. Bower (1972) asked his participants to remember word pairs consisting of unrelated nouns. He then asked some of his participants to form a mental image in which the objects were interacting. For example if the words were horse and table, you could image a horse on top of a table. Bower found that the participants who constructed a mental image found it easier to recall the word pairs.
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Therefore my prediction is that the participants will recall more words visually shown to them as opposed to the words verbally shown. Method Design I am using a laboratory experiment for this with 24 participants. A laboratory experiment is good because I can manipulate the variables (Independent variable and dependent variable); the procedure is standardized and therefore replicable making the experiment reliable. I will use 15 different words for each experiment. To make this test as fair as possible I will relate the words on each experiment.
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Debriefing became popular again in 1983 when J.T. Mitchell published "When disaster strikes, the critical incident stress debriefing process". Mitchell described the debriefing process known as critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) which forms part of the wider strategy called critical incident stress management (CISM). The process of debriefing begins after a traumatic event and is a seven-stage process that occurs in a group session 24-72 hours after the traumatic event. These group sessions are facilitated by trained mental health workers. Debriefing is different from an early intervention program.
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To illustrate this point this paper will discuss cross-cultural aspects in Erikson's Theory of Development. We will also discuss the ways in which our ethnocentricity affects the way we interact with others who are different than us. Erikson's Theory of Development In the developmental theories of psychology we find many ethnocentric limitations that emphasize Western culture, therefore the developmental milestones are predicted according to life in Western industrial culture. Erik Erikson (Erikson,1968) developed one of the most well known theories of psychosocial development.
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Plantation flourished across the nation in states such as California, Georgia, Mississippi, Nebraska, and South Carolina. Marijuana use grew rapidly throughout the U.S. between the years of 1850 and 1937. This particular drug was available at pharmacies or could be purchased from general stores. "The increasing use of marijuana by mainstream white American help lead to the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, under which mandatory penalties for drug offenses were repealed by congress and marijuana was categorized separately from other narcotics"( A Social History of American's Most Popular Drugs 2010). Although marijuana was considered an illegal substance, the government still allowed doctors or physicians to use it as medicine.
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The three main studies which were done were Asch study with the lines. This study was done in 1955. Asch wanted to see how other people's opinions and views affected an individual person participating in this study. In the study 7-9 college students were told to enter a classroom. They were told it was an experiment concerning psychological reasons to do with visual judgments. One factor however was that the participant didn't have any idea that the people in the groups were confederates, overall there were 123 participants. The person in charge of doing the experiment (experimenter)
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When you are looking on the advert for the first time, your eyes are going directly to the apple-perfume in the right top corner. It is because the rest of the picture is a little bit faded. The apple-perfume itself is shiny. The princess� sight is on the apple-perfume and that�s why we look on that at the first place. The apple-perfume picture is not really big; however it generates interest because everything on the advert is focused on that.
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A big interference with dreams is stress. a. A lot of stress is built up, throughout the day. b. This may result to a nightmare. D. Greek Philosophers analyzed dreams. 1. They thought dreams were caused by direct expressions at night. 2. (A crazy beast) would come out of the dreamers mind if they went to sleep mad. 3. Healthy people were thought to have adventurous dreams. III. There are several different types of dreams. A. One type of dream is a nightmare.
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When looking at research that attempts to link crime to genetics, both legal and moral implications are created. With regards to treatment of participants, one of the major problems is maintaining the confidentiality of information that might be revealed as part of the research process, for example, sexual habits or drug use. In such situations the issue of confidentiality is paramount. If confidentiality were broken, then participants would be less willing to divulge this information in the future and further research in this area would have been compromised.
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His research showed that these nervous people tended to suffer more frequently from a variety of "nervous disorders". But it did not mean that people who score high on the neuroticism scale are necessarily neurotics -- only that they are more susceptible to neurotic problems. Eysenck was convinced that, since everyone in his data-pool fit somewhere between normality-to-neuroticism, this was a true temperament, i.e. that this was a genetically-based, physiologically-supported dimension of personality. He therefore went to the physiological research to find possible explanations.
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Aggression, self-injury, and mood disorders are sometimes associated with the disability (Mental retardation). CLASSIFICATION The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), which is the diagnostic standard for mental health care professionals in the United States, classifies four different degrees/ levels of mental retardation based on the person's level of functioning (Mental retardation): 1. Mild 2. Moderate 3. Severe 4. Profound MILD MENTAL RETARDATION Approximately 85% of the mentally retarded population falls under this category.
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It moves with and expands and contracts according to the situation in which we find our self's in. One study I am going to talk about Middlemist (1976). The aim of his study was to see what effects personal space had in a men's public toilet. They place 2 men at a time in different situations and measured how long it took for them to urinate. They found out that the closer the men are together, the longer it takes for them to start to urinate and less time to complete. The conclusion to that was that the more personal space invaded the more effect it has on a man's bladder.
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In the following essay, I will make an attempt to unearth and analyze the logic and some of the key theories linked with reasoning and its role as a Way of Knowing. In doing so, I will investigate various circumstances to find occasions where reasoning falls short and in addition, I will hopefully be able to make judgements as to whether reasoning is completely legitimate in all Areas of Knowledge and how its strengths and weaknesses add up to give an overall view of its importance.
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* Deception - I will not lie throughout my experiment, * Debrief - this will be read out at the end of my experiment. * Withdrawal - all participants have the right to withdraw from my experiment at any time; I will inform participants of this during the 'Standardised Instructions'. * Informed Consent - all participants will know what is happening within my experiment. * Protection - no one will be harmed during my experiment. Participants; My target population for this experiment is 16 year old girls from Whalley Range 11-18 High School in Manchester, England.
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I will also create 5 estimate sheets with no estimates on, to compare the above results too. For this study I will use the experimental method, this will give me more control on everything my participants do. My study will also have the independent group design this means that one group will write their estimates on a high answer sheet, one group on a low answer sheet and the other group on a sheet with no answers. I chose this design to avoid order effects, this design means that each group will only go through one condition, one group will go through the high estimate answer sheet condition, one group through the low estimate answer sheet condition and the other through the controlled answer sheet condition.
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