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- Marked by Teachers essays 12
- Peer Reviewed essays 38
In this essay I will evaluate and explain the Social Learning Theory (SLT), which explains aggressiveness from a behaviourism point of view. The opposite point of view is the biological point of view; they believe that aggressiveness stems from genetic ma5 star(s)
This could be a type of imitation. As boxing is seen as a mainly male sport it can only be generalised to American Males, also due to the study being a correlation we can't determine cause and affect. One of the strengths of SLT is that it can explain aggression in absence of direct reinforcement and can also explain individual differences and context dependant learning. It is possible to assume in Bandura's study, the children were aware what was expected of them, (demand characteristics).
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According to Freud's psychoanalytic model, the five phases of expressions of the sexual drive are the oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital stages; the erogenous zones in focus are therefore the mouth, anus, genital, nothing, and genital respectively. Throughout the first two stages of oral and sadistic-anal which take place in the first 3 years of a child's life, boys and girls receive gratification in the exactly the same way - through the mouth by nursing and eating and other related oral activities, and anally by the movement, and withholding of movement of bowels.
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Other actions include making fun of someone's clothes or how they look physically and bumping into someone on purpose ( Skowronski, Weaver,Wise, Kelly 2005). According to Skowronski et al (2005), relational aggression tends to be most concentrated and apparent among girls in fifth through eighth grade. Research shows that this type of behavior often continues, although possibly to a fairly minor degree, in high school (Skowronski,et al. 2005). A study of 15,686 U.S. students in grades six through ten, published in 2001 in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Vol.
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Aim: To discover whether children learn aggression Procedure: Bandura et al divided 66 nursery group children into three groups. All three groups watched a film where an adult model kicked and punched a Bobo (blow-up) doll. > In condition one the adult was rewarded by a second adult. > In condition two the adult was told off by another adult. > In condition three the adult was neither rewarded nor punished (control). The children were then allowed to play in the room with the Bobo doll while experimenters watched through a two- way mirror.
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Memory. In this investigation, my aim is to see whether shallow processing or deeper processing lasts long in the human mind. This means that I am checking to see whether people can remember things
METHOD Design Every investigation has a design to it. A design in an investigation is the way in which you undertake the experiment. It is the way in which you wish to illustrate your experiment and collate the data. The main designs used by psychologists are, independent measures, repeated measures and matched pairs. Independent measures are when one of the two groups does the experimental task while the other does the controlled task. This means that they get results that are more varied. The downfall of this design is that the two sets of people may vary in their experience, attitudes, intelligence, alertness and moods.
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In the scientific approach, there is much less interest in what constitutes a "good" or "bad" personality. Although every personality psychologist knows very well, in her or her private life, which personalities are "good" and "bad," and although he or she might work very hard to ensure that others regard him or her as having a "good" personality, each will strive to leave these issues at the door when he or she enters the laboratory to undertake research on personality.
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This is not to say, that it is not there. It remains to be explored. The goal of this research paper was to look at the graphic depiction used in the epigraphy, and to determine the defense mechanisms used in order to see how the Maya culture psychologically adapted to their environment and insured their survival. The decline of the Maya culture has often been the source of controversy; however, in a research paper this author presented in Dr. Supek's class last Spring, it was largely agreed upon in the literature that the Maya's decline appeared due to the overpopulation during abundant times.
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Highlight the key features/tenets of Freud's and Murray's theories of personality. Identify key similarities and differences between the two theories, and briefly assess if they are compatible or mutually exclusive.
For example, shameful experiences or unacceptable sexual or aggressive urges are often driven deep within the unconscious. This is why one major goal of psychoanalysis-the method of treating psychological disorders devised by Freud - is to bring repressed material back into consciousness (which patients can gain insight into the early life experience that caused them to repress it in the first place) in order to remove mental illness. Freud also believed that personality involves three basic structures: id, ego, and superego, which correspond very roughly to desire, reason, and conscience.
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Linking Freudian and Jungian psychology to elements of cultural studies, conceive a useful model that describes a triangular relationship between individuals, the media and some form of collective consciousness.
The choices people make are sometimes made out of necessity, sheer ignorance, by thinking logically, or seem to be ridden of any cause whatsoever. Why do you take your coffee the way you do, are you absolutely helpless without red lipstick on or feel either superior or inadequate around certain people in particular situations? What invokes fear, happiness or joy? I can imagine choices and actions being ascribed to character traits or personal taste. But what element of the mind is responsible for the colour of our individual characters?
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This was a different approach from the two other chiefs of psychology of his day: Freud and B.F. Skinner. Freud saw little difference between the motivation of humans and animals. Humans are supposedly sensible beings, however we do not act in that way, Maslow believed that the result of Freud's result was because Freud studied on animals and the mentally ill people; his exact saying was "The study of crippled, stunned, immature and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and cripple philosophy".
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The acme of his whole doctrine of the libido is that he considered man as a libidinal being. He also conceived the spiritual activities as being rooted in instincts. The gross reduction of man to the instinctive level is precisely the point of concern in this work 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM Within the panorama of rational analysis as well as the biological framework of man and his psychological responsiveness, it is expedient to say without qualms of conscience that man is a sexual being.
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Compare and contrast Freud's explanation of dreams a wish-fulfilment and Davidson's theory of action.
In order to answer these questions, we must examine the place of wish-fulfilment within Freudian theory more closely. The most straightforward explanation of the function of wish-fulfilment would seem to be found in what Freud terms "dreams of convenience", which at first sight arise mostly as responses to physical stimuli - such as thirst, hunger, or a need to urinate -, and serve to prevent the dreamer's sleep and rest from being broken. In Freud's famous example, whenever he ate anchovies or other salted foods, he would become thirsty during the night and dream that he was drinking water.
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Describe how Freud's patient load may have influenced his theories about all people's minds and behavior. How does this weaken his assertions about humankind?
For example, upon hearing numerous women complaining of fainting, Freud linked that to hysteria, when in fact today it can be traced to women's fashion of the time (corsets) and the tightness of them. This probably caused the women to faint, not hysteria, and the fact that Freud lived in such a society where the predominant thought was that women were the weaker race probably fueled him in the answer he gave about women fainting as it would seem that women were in fact weaker race.
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In The Future of an Illusion it says that ''Impersonal forces and destinies cannot be approached; they can remain eternally remote. But if the elements have passions that rage as they do in our own souls...If everywhere in nature there beings around us of a kind that we know in our society, then we can breathe freely and can feel at home in the uncanny and can deal by physical means with our own senseless anxiety'' (Freud 1927). So, Freud states that instead of coping with the external world using reason and logic we cope using our emotional forces whose function is to repress and perhaps control what we are unable to explain.
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