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GCSE: Psychology

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  1. Free essay

    Discuss one or more theories of Moral Understanding and evaluate its conclusions.

    4 star(s)

    The theory I am going to discuss is Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Approach. His theory of moral development is concerned with how the child's moral knowledge and understanding change with age. Piaget saw morality as any system of rules, which governs interaction between people. The methods of investigation he used to develop his theories were, he looked at the way children imposed rules in their games. He used games to study the development of children's moral development as he thought that by studying rules in the context of a game, he could study the child's spontaneous though directly.

    • Word count: 1355
  2. Peer reviewed

    Discuss one explanation of Personality Development and evaluate its conclusion.

    4 star(s)

    He believed that all human behaviour is controlled by drives, which he relates to human instincts. Freud insisted that there are two forces feeding our instinctual urges with energy; the Libido and the Death Instinct; the Libido being a sexual energy and the Death Instinct being more of an aggressive energy. According to Freud, the adult human mind is made up of three different parts and levels of awareness; the unconscious mind, which he named the 'Id'; the preconscious mind, which he named the 'Superego', and the conscious mind, which he named the 'Ego'.

    • Word count: 1366
  3. Peer reviewed

    Explain the effectiveness of the biological perspective in explaining one psychological or social problem.

    4 star(s)

    Lorenz stated that aggression was controlled by environmental cues called sign stimuli, which either would stop the animal from being aggressive or on the contrary cause it to be aggressive. As aggression is innate and therefore unavoidable, Lorenz thought that if humans did vacuum activities, like exercise, was necessary to avoid having an aggressive behaviour against another.

    • Word count: 403
  4. Peer reviewed

    Three Approaches To Psychology

    4 star(s)

    Laboratory experimentation and observation of the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, neurochemistry and genes has contributed to an understanding of gender development, aggression, abnormality, memory, motivation and awareness. Biopsychology's input has been applied mainly to therapy and localisation of function. The very scientific biological approach lends itself to the nurture debate with effective practical applications such as the treatment of mental disorder however could be considered over simplistic and to encourage reductionism thus not adequately explaining how mind and body interact.

    • Word count: 661
  5. Peer reviewed

    Describe and evaluate one or more psychodynamic explanations of personality development.

    4 star(s)

    It takes into account what is going on in reality and it acknowledges that acting impulsively can hurt us. Then finally the superego, this develops during the phallic stage and it is the child's conscience and sense of right and wrong. It is formed when the child adopts many of the values of the same sex parent. It is said that there is conflict between the three parts. Evidence into the tripartite personality is Solms, who used PET scans to provide support for the concept of the id and the ego. During REM sleep the rational part of the brain is inactive and Freud's theory would say that the ego does indeed become suspended while the id is active during dreaming.

    • Word count: 748
  6. Peer reviewed

    Theories from the psychodynamic approach have helped to explain how mental health issues may be dealt with. Discuss how mental health issues are tackled by the psychodynamic approach

    4 star(s)

    The psychodynamic approach is mainly comprised of ideas and notions suggested by Sigmund Freud, based partly on his psychosexual development theory. In essence, the child passes through stages such as oral and the anal. Major conflicts or excessive gratification at any of these stages can lead to fixation, therefore if an adult experiences great personal problems, he or she will tend to show regression (going back through the stages of the psychosexual development) to the stage at which he or she had previously been fixated.

    • Word count: 684
  7. Peer reviewed

    Critically evaluate the psychoanalytic approach

    4 star(s)

    Anal stage - (approx 2-4 years) Pleasure is focused on the passing or excreaton of faces. On this stage Freud said that if parents were too pushy and strict with toilet training then the child may become anally retentive - resulting in excessive tiredness and cleanliness and very self controlled. If the child enjoyed the training this could lead to an anally expulsive personality - messy, untidy and sadistic. However where did Freud provide this evidence that this is caused in later life if the child does not pass through this stage sufficiently? Phallic stage (approx 3-6 years)- Child becomes aware of new pleasures - playing with themselves.

    • Word count: 2013
  8. Peer reviewed

    Definition of Psychology.

    4 star(s)

    But it was not excepted, for the reason that it had too much of religious flavour. Soul generally conveys the idea of a supernatural thing. it is immortal, beyond one's control. It is not easy to observe and study the soul so this theory was discarded. The science of mind: Then, Psychology was defined as the science of mind. Later , it was changed to mental processes, by Psychologists as Hume and Tichener. This "invisible" world of mind involves many different aspects, functions and potentials. Imagination, attention, intellect, awareness, intention, reason, will, responsibility, memory, and many other things exist in each of us.

    • Word count: 827
  9. Peer reviewed

    Describe & evaluate explanations of schizophrenia (1 bioloigcal & 1 psychological).

    4 star(s)

    This suggests that the stronger the genetic link the greater the chance that you will get schizophrenia. However, the fact that family members who are more similar genetically tend to spend more time together means that environmental factors are also indicated in this evidence. The concept that genetic factors are important in producing schizophrenia is supported by adoption studies. Tienari (1991) managed to find 155 schizophrenic mothers who had given up their children for adoption, and they were compared against 155 adopted children not having a schizophrenic parent.

    • Word count: 665
  10. Peer reviewed

    The Psychodynamic Approach.

    4 star(s)

    He studied in Vienna and most of his life he spent in this town. Later on he became a doctor and during that time he learned about hysteria disorders and techniques of hypnosis. These two were to play a big role in his career. Soon he became more specialized in neurological disorders and became a leading figure in the area. Freud became famous for his writings on psychoanalysis. In 1919 he granted the title of professor at the University of Vienna. Later on in his life he underwent a series of surgeries for cancer in the jaw.

    • Word count: 691
  11. Peer reviewed

    "Is behavior mainly inherited or it is learned?" Discuss based on your knowledge concerning modern Psychological theories.

    4 star(s)

    The empiricists position states that a baby's mind at birth is like a blank page, known as tabula rasa and there are recorded all future experiences from which the baby learns how to behave. Therefore environment has a direct effect on an individuals behavior. For example, both sides can explain the situation of an individual being aggressive. From the nature's side it is believed that aggression is due to hormones and certain stimulations in the brain area (Freud, Lorenz). In addition, the empiricists side support that aggression is learned by the environment and imitated.

    • Word count: 639

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