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GCSE: Psychology

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  1. Adolescence and adulthood in Pride and Prejudice.

    We recently did a chart as class work, which helped us classify traits as adulthood, and traits that would fall under the category of adolescence. Some adolescent behavior would be known as laughing at the ridiculous, emotionalism, searching for approval, among many more. First, the laughing at the ridiculous would be one that would classify just about ninety percent of all teens in America. Everyone laughs at ridiculous things, but teens and the youth take it to a whole new level.

    • Word count: 668
  2. Dreams Outline

    A big interference with dreams is stress. a. A lot of stress is built up, throughout the day. b. This may result to a nightmare. D. Greek Philosophers analyzed dreams. 1. They thought dreams were caused by direct expressions at night. 2. (A crazy beast) would come out of the dreamers mind if they went to sleep mad. 3. Healthy people were thought to have adventurous dreams. III. There are several different types of dreams. A. One type of dream is a nightmare.

    • Word count: 1209
  3. Gender Differences In Prejudice

    Previous research in this area includes Adorno's authoritarian personality, Tajfel's social identity theory and Sherif's competition theory. In America's 1950s, Adorno suggested the idea of a personality type which is more likely to be prejudiced. His research was inspired by the behaviour of Nazi soldiers in World War II. After interviewing hundreds of people, he and his colleagues found a pattern of personality characteristics which they called the authoritarian personality. People belonging to this type of personality tend to be hostile to those who are of inferior status, obedient and servile to those of higher status, fairly rigid in their opinions and beliefs, intolerant of uncertainty or ambiguity, conventional, upholding traditional values.

    • Word count: 2356
  4. Interpersonal Relationships

    They arise from individual interactions with coworkers, community organizations, religious groups, family members, or love interests, among others. Individuals in these relationships must establish mutual trust to ensure a lasting relationship. There are three fundamental forms of interpersonal relationships: attraction, intimacy, and aggression. The first two may be considered pro-social interactions, with typically positive outcomes, while aggression is generally considered an anti-social interaction, with frequently negative outcomes (Fiske, 2004). Attraction Interpersonal attraction is an attitude that draws individuals together, and tends to be the building block for most pro-social relationships. It is often based on the other individual's physical attractiveness or geographical proximity.

    • Word count: 2244
  5. Cognitive Dissonance

    Festinger states that when this occurs, psychological tension will be experienced. Accordingly, the theory of cognitive dissonance stated, "people sometimes change their attitudes in order to relieve the personal psychological stress they feel" and this stress is a byproduct of the contradiction between their actions and attitudes"(Neir, 2007, P.75). Changes in behavior can then alter attitudes. Bem (1967) presents the opposing position that cognitive dissonance does not explain why behavior changes attitudes. According to Bem (1967), he created the self-perception theory which holds when people are unsure of their attitudes; they then examine their behavior to determine the reason for their attitudes (Neir, 2007).

    • Word count: 2265
  6. Behaviourism focuses exclusively on external and observable behaviours. There are two main believers to that all behaviour is determined by environmental influences

    salivate when a bell is sounded, but if food was offered after sounding a bell, eventually the dog would associate the bell with the food and would salivate merely at the sound of the bell. The second was Operant conditioning- which was mostly connected through Skinner, this conditioning was learning through consequences (i.e. positive and negative reinforcement stamp behaviour in or out).

    • Word count: 517
  7. Outline and evaluate one or more theories of face recognition

    Sergent conducted her or study based on identikit pictures and found that the faces were being processed in a holistic form, rather than a set of independent features. In another study, Young supported the idea that we recognize faces by processing information about the aural consideration of the face, rather than by analysing individual features. They combine for tours of the top half of one celebrity face with the bottom half of another. When the two halves will closely aligned to create a single face, participants experienced great difficulty in identifying the top half.

    • Word count: 791
  8. Outline two studies of obedience and consider whether they show external validity.

    Due to the study being conducted in a laboratory it was believed it would be hard to generalise the findings to real life situations. Gross offers a solution to this criticism by claiming that experiments are similar to real life social situations and thus participant's behaviour in the study is similar to how it would be in real life. However, for many critics this was hard to believe due to the findings that 65% of participants gave the maximum intensity shock of 450 volts.

    • Word count: 699
  9. Spanish Writing Task

    Tes impressions de la nouvelle maison Je pense que ma nouvelle maison est tr�s sensationnelle. J'adore ma maison parce que c'est confortable et chaud. Alors, j'ai des feux pr�s de ma rue. Mais c'est beaucoup de travail. Le week-end dernier on a peint le salon en jaune et maintenant je dois peindre la cuisine. Quelque chose qui s'est produit dans ta nouvelle �cole Dernier Mercredi midi � l'�cole, un voleur est entr� dans la cantine en brandissant un couteau et a demand� au commis l'argent de la caisse. Et pendant que le voleur tapait pour sortir, la dame de la cantine a appel� la police de son t�l�phone portable.

    • Word count: 682
  10. Discuss issues relating to the ethics of SSR

    When looking at research that attempts to link crime to genetics, both legal and moral implications are created. With regards to treatment of participants, one of the major problems is maintaining the confidentiality of information that might be revealed as part of the research process, for example, sexual habits or drug use. In such situations the issue of confidentiality is paramount. If confidentiality were broken, then participants would be less willing to divulge this information in the future and further research in this area would have been compromised.

    • Word count: 1118
  11. HANS EYSENCK(TM)S THEORY OF PERSONALITY

    His research showed that these nervous people tended to suffer more frequently from a variety of "nervous disorders". But it did not mean that people who score high on the neuroticism scale are necessarily neurotics -- only that they are more susceptible to neurotic problems. Eysenck was convinced that, since everyone in his data-pool fit somewhere between normality-to-neuroticism, this was a true temperament, i.e. that this was a genetically-based, physiologically-supported dimension of personality. He therefore went to the physiological research to find possible explanations.

    • Word count: 1245
  12. Obedience is not an obligation its a choice. Being obedient is not giving up your power or opinion, its humbling yourself to agree with a superior figure.

    Once a child begins school, they will be forced to deal with rules and consequences. Parents that allow their children to have the upper hand at home and have not enforced rules make teacher's jobs much more difficult. Disobedient children generally are immature, unruly, rebellious, lacking in manners, and are disrespectful. The most likely outcome is the self destruction that disobedient people endure. As you get older, being obedient is the inevitable (that is, unless you're the Queen of England and you're the Head Honcho making all the rules).

    • Word count: 545
  13. Mental Retardness

    Aggression, self-injury, and mood disorders are sometimes associated with the disability (Mental retardation). CLASSIFICATION The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), which is the diagnostic standard for mental health care professionals in the United States, classifies four different degrees/ levels of mental retardation based on the person's level of functioning (Mental retardation): 1. Mild 2. Moderate 3. Severe 4. Profound MILD MENTAL RETARDATION Approximately 85% of the mentally retarded population falls under this category.

    • Word count: 1347
  14. A Bully

    Other actions include making fun of someone's clothes or how they look physically and bumping into someone on purpose ( Skowronski, Weaver,Wise, Kelly 2005). According to Skowronski et al (2005), relational aggression tends to be most concentrated and apparent among girls in fifth through eighth grade. Research shows that this type of behavior often continues, although possibly to a fairly minor degree, in high school (Skowronski,et al. 2005). A study of 15,686 U.S. students in grades six through ten, published in 2001 in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Vol.

    • Word count: 4653
  15. Central Traits. 'On the basis of one word participants will make bias judgements on the personality of two complete strangers.' Discuss.

    I also limited the conversation they could have as the list of words did not in fact apply to the confederates and they could give away their true personality easily. Furthermore my class, being quite young and new to the school, must be told of the anonymity of the experiment and I must brief them beforehand so they know not to worry that they could get in trouble for, for example, giving a negative opinion about one of my confederates.

    • Word count: 2212
  16. Primary & Recencey

    The Structural processing is the appearance of the information that has been processed in our memory. Phonemic processing is the way we encode the sound of the information. In addition to this the Semantic processing is the meaning and the knowledge we have about the information which we process. Craik and Tulving (1975) The aim of this investigation was to see how shallow and deep processing affects the way memory recalls. The procedure of this investigation was that participants were given series of 60 words where they had to answer one of three questions.

    • Word count: 2401
  17. Ego's and social health

    The ego is what is presented to the outside world. Therefore, a good understanding of ego development is essential for any psychosynthesis counsellor to have, in the presence of a client that is struggling with issues or concerns affecting or influencing the perception of themselves in relation to others. A psychosynthesis counsellor may see clients with self-esteem issues, low self-confidence or personality disorder traits. An understanding of how these circumstances may have arrived is vital to understanding how the professional can help resolve the client's worries.

    • Word count: 2781
  18. Pschology personal space

    It moves with and expands and contracts according to the situation in which we find our self's in. One study I am going to talk about Middlemist (1976). The aim of his study was to see what effects personal space had in a men's public toilet. They place 2 men at a time in different situations and measured how long it took for them to urinate. They found out that the closer the men are together, the longer it takes for them to start to urinate and less time to complete. The conclusion to that was that the more personal space invaded the more effect it has on a man's bladder.

    • Word count: 1566
  19. Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model

    The way in which memory is stored in the SM is by touch, taste, visual, ecoustic etc. They way in which the memory transfers from SM STM are by attention being given to the item. For example you will only realise that there are birds flying outside your window if your attention is being given to the things outside.

    • Word count: 496
  20. what is beauty

    Analysis could only destroy it if it had no concrete existence--which is what its critics claim, that beauty is an illusion in the eye of the beholder, an eye preconditioned by social convention and economic interest. What this essay will do is argue that beauty is an objective reality. If not beauty, what do contemporary artists propose to themselves as the meaning of their work? There are three usual answers to this question. The first is that it is enough to be new, disturbing, analytically interesting.

    • Word count: 2275
  21. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of reasoning as a Way of Knowing.

    In the following essay, I will make an attempt to unearth and analyze the logic and some of the key theories linked with reasoning and its role as a Way of Knowing. In doing so, I will investigate various circumstances to find occasions where reasoning falls short and in addition, I will hopefully be able to make judgements as to whether reasoning is completely legitimate in all Areas of Knowledge and how its strengths and weaknesses add up to give an overall view of its importance.

    • Word count: 1267
  22. Psychology Coursework

    * Deception - I will not lie throughout my experiment, * Debrief - this will be read out at the end of my experiment. * Withdrawal - all participants have the right to withdraw from my experiment at any time; I will inform participants of this during the 'Standardised Instructions'. * Informed Consent - all participants will know what is happening within my experiment. * Protection - no one will be harmed during my experiment. Participants; My target population for this experiment is 16 year old girls from Whalley Range 11-18 High School in Manchester, England.

    • Word count: 1240
  23. "Some mothers choose to stay at home and look after their children while others have little choice in the matter and may feel quite worried about the effects of day care. To what extent does day care

    In a baby's early days, they begin to develop a special emotional relationship with the person or people who look after them. When this is formed the baby will try to stay close to that adult, and will appear to want to be cared for by that adult. Many psychologists believe this emotional bond as being extremely important to future mental health. This special emotional bond is known as an attachment bond. Attachment can be defined as "an affectionate two way relationship that is formed between an infant and another person".

    • Word count: 2027
  24. Psychology - conformity

    I will also create 5 estimate sheets with no estimates on, to compare the above results too. For this study I will use the experimental method, this will give me more control on everything my participants do. My study will also have the independent group design this means that one group will write their estimates on a high answer sheet, one group on a low answer sheet and the other group on a sheet with no answers. I chose this design to avoid order effects, this design means that each group will only go through one condition, one group will go through the high estimate answer sheet condition, one group through the low estimate answer sheet condition and the other through the controlled answer sheet condition.

    • Word count: 1857
  25. Primacy/ Recency Effect

    Introduction & Instructions for P'c: Hello, my name is Marta. Would you mind taking part of my psychology experiment? This experiment involves you to listen carefully to the list of 20 words, then try to remember as many as you can, in no order. I will then give 5min for you to try to write them on a piece of paper, as many as you can, in any order. Do you understand what I want you to do? Did you have any questions that you would like to ask me?

    • Word count: 1441

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