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"It has been found that in early childhood there are signs of bodily activity to which only an ancient prejudice could deny the name of sexual and which are linked to psychical phenomena that we come across later in adult erotic life" (Freud 1940). It is clear that Freud believed that the sensations at each stage of development are sexual but it is important to remember that when using the word 'sexual' he is referring to sensations, pleasures, excitements etc that are not necessarily associated with genital sexuality.
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attempt to force their way into consciousness. More specifically, a dream was the disguised fulfilment of a repressed desire. It had to be disguised because the repressed desires could be sexual or aggressive urges unacceptable to the dreamer when awake. However, the major problem with Freud's theory of dream function is that interpretation of a dream function is not something that can be objectively achieved. Webb and Cartwright 1978 see dreams as a way of dealing with problems relating to work, sex and relationships that occur during working hours.
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"Psycho-analysis" soon gained acceptance all over the world as a scientific discipline and as a therapeutic approach. On March 12, 1938 German troops marched into Austria and the Nazis assumed power. Freud's daughter Anna was arrested on March 22 by the Gestapo and held for a single day. On June 4th of the same year, Freud and certain members of his household, such as his wife, his youngest daughter Anna, his housekeeper Paula Fichtl and his medical caretaker Josefine Stross were granted emigration rights for London.
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Personality, is the deeply ingrained and relatively enduring patterns of thought, feeling and behavior.
Thus when someone says to you that you have a nice personality, which you don't recognize exist in you, it is because this is something that you don't put on our take off but rather something that is unconscious to you but which others recognizes by observing your action, attitudes and the way you carry about your self in general. Freud's psychoanalysis also emphasizes that early experiences with parents play an important role in sculpting personality. This can seen in cases where children had early experiences with parents developed certain types of personality that are similar to parents or sometimes different, depending on the circumstances.
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As a result of this, human beings have often been disregarded as passive victims of society. Seligman aims to correct this unbalance by promoting the investigation into positive areas of psychology. Seligman proposes three 'desirable lives,' the first one being 'The pleasant life.' This refers to any positive emotions that arise from happiness and well- being. He divides these emotions into three main categories, past, present and future. He believes that in order to feel happier about our past, we must abandon any fears that previous bad experiences will determine our present and future. In order to feel content in the present, we must distinguish between 'pleasures' and 'gratifications.' Pleasure can present itself in two forms.
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This develops during the first two years of life and is the rational and conscious part of the mind. The ego works on the reality principle, taking account of what is happening in the environment around, i.e., the reality. Third, there is the superego. This develops at about the age of 5 years and represents the child's conscience and the sense of right and wrong. Freud suggested that this is formed in replication of the values of the same sexed parent, also known as the process of identification. Freud suggested that these three parts of the mind are frequently at conflict with one another.
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Compare and contrast Freud's explanation of dreams a wish-fulfilment and Davidson's theory of action.
In order to answer these questions, we must examine the place of wish-fulfilment within Freudian theory more closely. The most straightforward explanation of the function of wish-fulfilment would seem to be found in what Freud terms "dreams of convenience", which at first sight arise mostly as responses to physical stimuli - such as thirst, hunger, or a need to urinate -, and serve to prevent the dreamer's sleep and rest from being broken. In Freud's famous example, whenever he ate anchovies or other salted foods, he would become thirsty during the night and dream that he was drinking water.
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Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using psychodynamic concepts of repression and resistance in understanding and treating psychological disorders.
These three parts of the mind are frequently at conflict with one another. Conflicts occur most often between the id and the superego, because the id wants instant gratification, where as the superego takes account of moral standards and decorum. Since, conflicts cause anxiety, the ego defends itself against anxiety by using several defence mechanisms to prevent traumatic thoughts and feelings reaching consciousness. One of the major defence mechanisms is repression, which forces memories of conflicts and traumas out of consciousness and into the unconscious mind. Other defence mechanisms may include resistance, displacement and projection.
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To do this, he used the technique of free association. This is where Freud would say a word e.g. mother, and the patient would say the first thing that came to mind. Freud would then use these words to put together a picture to explain the person's problems. One of Freud's most important assumptions was that the primary driving force in a person's mental life, which also affects behaviour, is the sexual instinct. It broke up the personality into three parts, the id, ego and superego. The id is the part that operates at an unconscious level; the ego satisfies the demands of the id's sexual instincts.
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These themes are called ritornello. In this way, the soloist and the orchestra will work together, using antiphony and imitation to create a successful atmosphere for the piece. The exposition will usually be composed of a first group (in the tonic key) and a second key (in the dominant, if major, or the relative major if in a minor key to start). The orchestral exposition would give the outline or the skeleton of the themes and the piece, and then when repeated by the soloist, they would change keys and give the full version with all the themes (minus the ritornello).
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Compare how the poems “piano” and “at castle Boterel” portray the power of memory.
The words "burst" and "clamour" are onomatopoeic words, which inject an immediate increase in volume after the calming use of sibilance in the second stanza, and are supported by the word "appassionato". The fact that the man considers it "vain" for take such a noise shows that it has no impact on him and creates the idea of the memory having trapped him in the past. In "at castle Boterel" the man is more relaxed about returning to his past, but the memory is still portrayed as having much power over him.
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This past, moreover, includes not just our civilized ancestors like the Greeks and Romans but (now that Darwin has shown the connection) even prehistoric cultures and peoples, those communities of humans who first descended from their animal ancestors. With these things in hand, Freud turns next to two practices of primitive peoples which strike modem minds as especially strange: the use of animal "totems" and the custom of "taboo." Tylor, Frazer, and other anthropologists of that time were fascinated by these traditions, as we have noticed.
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For Newman, the conscience not only lets us distinguish good and bad actions it also leads us to G-d. The conscience is like an inner voice that guides our behaviour and produces feelings of guilt and shame. From the conscience, Newman infers the existence of G-d. Butler argues that conscience is part of the human nature that guides us towards the moral integration of the self. Butler holds that we must obey our conscience because it is the law of our nature.
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Critically examine the theories that underpin the process of personal development planning and the role of self-reflection.
This process gradually develops students to be aware of their skills, which initially gives them more confidence. This is achieved through reflecting and reviewing learning experiences that help students make targets and actions plans within profiling. By profiling it turns reflecting into a learning process, learning from experiences. The profiling process can be beneficial to the student as it allows them to think in what career path they would like to pursue in. "Profiling can be used by a student to focus in on particular career options, or it can be employed as a device, within the workplace, for thinking about professional development."
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Following this, he served as a merchant seaman in an Atlantic convoy in 1941. His first solo exhibition, in 1944 at the Lefevre Gallery, featured the now celebrated The Painter's Room 1944. In the summer of 1946, he went to Paris before going on to Greece for several months. Since then he has lived and worked in London. Freud's subjects are often the people in his life; friends, family, fellow painters, lovers, children. As he has said 'The subject matter is autobiographical, it's all to do with hope and memory and sensuality and involvement really'.
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TASK 2 Psychodynamic Theory The psychodynamic approach focuses mainly on individual motivation and past experiences gained in early childhood and its influence on adulthood. Pioneered by Sigmund Freud, (1856-1939) he believed that the individual human personality contains three major structures; the id, ego and super ego. (Introductory Psychology p.11) Id- is biologically determined i.e. inherited instinct drives that operate on the "pleasure principle" Ego- is a developed personality i.e. satisfies the id's needs that operate on the "reality principle" Super ego- individual moral values i.e.
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found that catharsis?? (talking freely) during hypnosis was the better way of treating hysterical patients???????. His Life Freud retuned to Vienna in 1886 and began to work extensively??? with hysterical patients. He gradually formed ideas about the origin?? and treatment of mental illness. Freud used the term psychoanalysis???? for both his theories and his method of treatment. When he first presented?? his ideas in the 1890s, other physicians reacted?? with hostility????. Yet Freud eventually?? attracted a group of followers, and by 1910 he had gained??
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Discuss Stanislavski's Methods For Creating Truthful Characterisation and Evaluate How Effective They Have Been For You As a Performer.
Without it either of the two, there can be no character, only an actor on stage. The 'Magic If' has allowed me to ask questions for my character 'Yerma' such as 'what would I do if my husband does not want children and I do?' Asking these types of questions has helped me to perform my character realistically. This is because I am responding as if I was in that situation. I found using some of Stanislavski's exercises helped me understand the 'Magic If' to play my character better.
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Freud developed his theory in the early 1990's. According to Freud, there are 3 personality structures, separate from each other, influencing our behaviour. These are the ID, ego and super ego.
5) GENITAL - coincides with puberty. Start to engage in sexual activities with opposite sex. However, sometimes people get fixated in a stage. If there is a fixation in any of these stages, it determines what personality we have. So a person can move on to the next stage of development but the part of the body that was sensitive in the previous stage, it still remains sensitive to stimulation. This happens if the person was under or over stimulated, in any of the stages. This affects the person's personality, habits and even job occupation they choose in the future.
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Review the novel's major theme-affect of the past, incidents building up to affect out personality development - Margaret Mahy's novel, "Memory".
Jonny believes that he did push his sister and now says that he should have been the one to go over. He goes through many critical and memorable moments and finally meets up with Bonny. He then learns the truth of his belief. His character becomes dispersed as Bonny says, "But she tripped. She tripped and fell." Jonny for most of the time had believed that he had haphazardly pushed Janine. Now, he felt as if the whole world had forgiven him, which had totally affected Jonny's personality development.
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Before she went into hospital she was still the same old' Martha. I can always recall a Wednesday; our 'Bamps' would pick up my sister and I from the bus stop to go to our Nan's for dinner, and every time that we got in the car, 'Grandma' would be there with her round jolly face and wicked laugh. After dinner, I would make her some ice cream, with a special request that baileys would be poured over the top. After which her cheeks and face would glow a rosy red. It is true what people say, 'You don't realise how much you love someone until they're gone'.
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The ego modifies the demands of the Id, deferring gratification until an appropriate time / place. The superego represents the child's conscience (morals, right / wrong) and develops at around the age of five. The superego is formed as a result of the process of identification with the same-sex parent, in order to resolve to Oedipus complex in boys and the Electra complex in girls. Freud also suggested that conflict between personality structures creates 'ego defences', leading to personality characteristics.
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The Ego develops from the Id to help us cope with the external world, and is necessary for survival. The Ego operates on the reality principal, which directs the gratification of the Id's needs through socially acceptable means. Finally, the Superego is the final part to emerge and is concerned with moral judgments and feelings. It operates roughly as the conscience. This part stops us doing wrong and being anti-social. The Psychodynamic model states that when these structures are 'in balance', normality is maintained. However, Freud saw conflict between them as always being present to some degree and when the conflict cannot be managed, disorders arise, which can cause abnormal behaviour.
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Describe how Freud's patient load may have influenced his theories about all people's minds and behavior. How does this weaken his assertions about humankind?
For example, upon hearing numerous women complaining of fainting, Freud linked that to hysteria, when in fact today it can be traced to women's fashion of the time (corsets) and the tightness of them. This probably caused the women to faint, not hysteria, and the fact that Freud lived in such a society where the predominant thought was that women were the weaker race probably fueled him in the answer he gave about women fainting as it would seem that women were in fact weaker race.
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Freud believed the structure of developing personality consisted the three interrelated parts the, Id, ego, and the superego. The role of these three aspects of personality plays with changes across the development of the infant, who is largely under control of instinctual drives, which gradually becomes more rational and reality- bound. The infant is guided by the id, which is the instinctual component of the personality which operates the pleasure principle is oriented toward maximizing pleasure and satisfying the needs of the personality, that emerges. The ego attempts to gratify needs of the person through appropriate socially constructive mechanisms. The third component of the personality. The superego emerges when a child internalises parental, societal, values, roles and morals.
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