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Behaviourism focuses exclusively on external and observable behaviours. There are two main believers to that all behaviour is determined by environmental influences

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Introduction

P1 Behaviourism focuses exclusively on external and observable behaviours. There are two main believers to that all behaviour is determined by environmental influences (i.e. learning). They are Ivan Pavlov and Burrhus Frederic Skinner. They both say that all behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning. There are two main types;- Classical conditional- learning by association- which was Pavlov main theory, he used this by doing an experiment on dogs- Pavlov harnessed a dog to an apparatus which, by means of a tube inserted in the animals cheek, and measured the amount of salvation obtained during the experiment. Salvation is the normal reflex response to food in the mouth, what he found was that hungry untrained dogs do not ...read more.

Middle

Skinner experiment was an apparatus known as 'skinner's box' which was an empty box apart from a lever and a food tray. A rat was placed in the box and when the rat pressed the lever a pellet of food was released into the food tray. His theory relies on the law of reinforcement which states actions which are immediately followed by rewards. The rat in skinners box learnt food was provided when ever it pressed the lever. Reinforcement- can be positive and negative reinforcement. Positive is tangible rewards- toys, sweets, money or intangible rewards, such as praise or affection. ...read more.

Conclusion

Operant-this is an example of positive reinforcement of smiling- if two children who infrequently smiled at other people were taken on walks and if they smiled at passers by, give them a treat of some kind (i.e. sweet). It would cause the two children to smile much more often then they had before. Reinforcement- A child misbehaving would be shouted at but when they stop being naughty you take away the negative condition by stop yelling at them, so you've enforced negative reinforcement. For a positive reinforcement you would reward the child every time they do something good therefore they would keep doing good things to be rewarded. ...read more.

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