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Definition of Psychology.

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Psychology: The term psychology comes from two Greek words: psyche, which means 1. The spirit or soul. 2. The human mind. 3. In psychoanalysis, the mind functioning as the center of thought, emotion, and behavior. And logos, "the study of." or according to modern researches "science" These root words were first combined in the 16th century, at a time when the human soul, spirit, or mind was seen as distinct from the body. Definition of Psychology: Psychology is one of the youngest sciences. It is still going through the process of its development. There has been much fierce controversy about its definition. It has been variously defined as the science of soul, the science of mind, the science of consciousness, the science of behavior. The science of soul: Psychology was first defined as the science of soul. But it was not excepted, for the reason that it had too much of religious flavour. ...read more.


The science of Behavior: J.B. Watson described Psychology as the science of Behavior.. He said that external action or behavior is the only concern of Psychology. He totally ignored mental processes. He said that what goes on in our mind eventually comes out as our behavior. But this is not true for all times so this was considered incomplete. Now a days the most comprehensive definition of Psychology is: "Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior, and its application to solve human problems" OR "Psychology is the schematic study of behavior and mental processes" This definition contains three elements. The first is that psychology is a scientific enterprise that obtains knowledge through systematic and objective methods of observation and experimentation. Second is that psychologists study behavior, which refers to any action or reaction that can be measured or observed-such as the blink of an eye, an increase in heart rate, or the unruly violence that often erupts in a mob. ...read more.


How immune system is effected by prolonged stress? Can learning be improved by the use of drugs facilitating the transmission of neurons? Psychology works on these and many more questions and problems. Psychology also affects our life through its influence on the making of laws and public policies. Psychology theories and research have influenced laws concerning discrimination, capital punishment, pornography, sexual behavior, and personality responsibility for actions. As psychology has a great vitality in our everyday life, even people who do not intend to specialize in this filed must know about its research methods. With its broad scope, psychology investigates an enormous range of phenomena: learning and memory, sensation and perception, motivation and emotion, thinking and language, personality and social behavior, intelligence, infancy and child development, mental illness, and much more. Furthermore, psychologists examine these topics from a variety of complementary perspectives. No matter what a psychologist's specialty or work setting, however - they all seek to understand why we think, act, and feel as we do (e.g. Psychologists study the "ABC's" of a person {a=affects or emotions, b=behaviors, c=cognition or thoughts}). ...read more.

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Response to the question

This is a deceptively hard question that many would believe to be quite easy in it's apparent straight-fowardness, but it is a very vague question that requires a huge amount of knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of the principles ...

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Response to the question

This is a deceptively hard question that many would believe to be quite easy in it's apparent straight-fowardness, but it is a very vague question that requires a huge amount of knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of the principles Psychology bases itself on to answer correctly. This candidate does a very good job though I feel they spend a little too much time talking about the inception of Psychology rather than what it means in today's society. It is not a requirement to focus on the birth of Psychology at lengths so the first quarter of the essay elicits very few marks as it is an example of where what is written is good but does not focus on the question; candidates must avoid this as even if what is written is right, it is a waste of time if it does not pertain to the proposed question.

Level of analysis

The Level of Analysis is sound. I like the different approaches that candidate makes in considering how Psychology is thought of and what practises it endorses. It outlines (quite vaguely) the different approaches and perspectives to Psychology but also identifies the link that strings them all together, suggesting that Psychology is a science of behaviour and explaining that behaviour.
To improve on this section, the candidate could look to explaining why their is a "fierce controversy" around the belief that Psychology is or isn't a science. They might consider how it qualifies as a science; what is a science and how is one identified; why might Psychology not be objective. The qualities of a science is that the investigations conducted are objective, replicable and have a provable hypothesis, and so of course, some studies instantly contradict the requirements of scientific merit (here would be a good place to provide examples). In fact, the one main issue I have with this essay is the lack of examples of psychological research that could've fortified the explanations of Psychology. With so much effort put into the different explanations and approaches, a few good studies clearly defining the differences between the approaches (e.g. Milgram for Social; Brunner, et al. for Biological; Loftus & Palmer for Cognitive; Farrington, et al. for Developmental, etc.). This would show the examiners a greater knowledge of Psychology and how to apply theory into practice.

Quality of writing

The Quality of Written Communication (QWC) is good. The candidate approaches specialist vocabulary well and maintains accurate spelling and grammar throughout their answer. The use of more complex punctuation could lead to a more confident-sounding answer though, so incorporating semi-colons and colons would prove a good idea if candidates were looking to bump up their QWC marks.

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Reviewed by sydneyhopcroft 24/03/2012

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