• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Definition of Psychology.

Extracts from this document...


Psychology: The term psychology comes from two Greek words: psyche, which means 1. The spirit or soul. 2. The human mind. 3. In psychoanalysis, the mind functioning as the center of thought, emotion, and behavior. And logos, "the study of." or according to modern researches "science" These root words were first combined in the 16th century, at a time when the human soul, spirit, or mind was seen as distinct from the body. Definition of Psychology: Psychology is one of the youngest sciences. It is still going through the process of its development. There has been much fierce controversy about its definition. It has been variously defined as the science of soul, the science of mind, the science of consciousness, the science of behavior. The science of soul: Psychology was first defined as the science of soul. But it was not excepted, for the reason that it had too much of religious flavour. ...read more.


The science of Behavior: J.B. Watson described Psychology as the science of Behavior.. He said that external action or behavior is the only concern of Psychology. He totally ignored mental processes. He said that what goes on in our mind eventually comes out as our behavior. But this is not true for all times so this was considered incomplete. Now a days the most comprehensive definition of Psychology is: "Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior, and its application to solve human problems" OR "Psychology is the schematic study of behavior and mental processes" This definition contains three elements. The first is that psychology is a scientific enterprise that obtains knowledge through systematic and objective methods of observation and experimentation. Second is that psychologists study behavior, which refers to any action or reaction that can be measured or observed-such as the blink of an eye, an increase in heart rate, or the unruly violence that often erupts in a mob. ...read more.


How immune system is effected by prolonged stress? Can learning be improved by the use of drugs facilitating the transmission of neurons? Psychology works on these and many more questions and problems. Psychology also affects our life through its influence on the making of laws and public policies. Psychology theories and research have influenced laws concerning discrimination, capital punishment, pornography, sexual behavior, and personality responsibility for actions. As psychology has a great vitality in our everyday life, even people who do not intend to specialize in this filed must know about its research methods. With its broad scope, psychology investigates an enormous range of phenomena: learning and memory, sensation and perception, motivation and emotion, thinking and language, personality and social behavior, intelligence, infancy and child development, mental illness, and much more. Furthermore, psychologists examine these topics from a variety of complementary perspectives. No matter what a psychologist's specialty or work setting, however - they all seek to understand why we think, act, and feel as we do (e.g. Psychologists study the "ABC's" of a person {a=affects or emotions, b=behaviors, c=cognition or thoughts}). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Response to the question

This is a deceptively hard question that many would believe to be quite easy in it's apparent straight-fowardness, but it is a very vague question that requires a huge amount of knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of the principles ...

Read full review

Response to the question

This is a deceptively hard question that many would believe to be quite easy in it's apparent straight-fowardness, but it is a very vague question that requires a huge amount of knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of the principles Psychology bases itself on to answer correctly. This candidate does a very good job though I feel they spend a little too much time talking about the inception of Psychology rather than what it means in today's society. It is not a requirement to focus on the birth of Psychology at lengths so the first quarter of the essay elicits very few marks as it is an example of where what is written is good but does not focus on the question; candidates must avoid this as even if what is written is right, it is a waste of time if it does not pertain to the proposed question.

Level of analysis

The Level of Analysis is sound. I like the different approaches that candidate makes in considering how Psychology is thought of and what practises it endorses. It outlines (quite vaguely) the different approaches and perspectives to Psychology but also identifies the link that strings them all together, suggesting that Psychology is a science of behaviour and explaining that behaviour.
To improve on this section, the candidate could look to explaining why their is a "fierce controversy" around the belief that Psychology is or isn't a science. They might consider how it qualifies as a science; what is a science and how is one identified; why might Psychology not be objective. The qualities of a science is that the investigations conducted are objective, replicable and have a provable hypothesis, and so of course, some studies instantly contradict the requirements of scientific merit (here would be a good place to provide examples). In fact, the one main issue I have with this essay is the lack of examples of psychological research that could've fortified the explanations of Psychology. With so much effort put into the different explanations and approaches, a few good studies clearly defining the differences between the approaches (e.g. Milgram for Social; Brunner, et al. for Biological; Loftus & Palmer for Cognitive; Farrington, et al. for Developmental, etc.). This would show the examiners a greater knowledge of Psychology and how to apply theory into practice.

Quality of writing

The Quality of Written Communication (QWC) is good. The candidate approaches specialist vocabulary well and maintains accurate spelling and grammar throughout their answer. The use of more complex punctuation could lead to a more confident-sounding answer though, so incorporating semi-colons and colons would prove a good idea if candidates were looking to bump up their QWC marks.

Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by sydneyhopcroft 24/03/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this essay I will evaluate and explain the Social Learning Theory (SLT), which ...

    5 star(s)

    Except that they write it down. * Alternatively, more structure could be imposed on their observations by using a coding system. Behavioural categories would be used to count the number of times a particular behaviour occurred. For example, observing a dinner date, to measure how well it is going, categories could include numbers of 'awkward silences', 'smiles' and 'laughter'.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Freud and Behaviourist's Theories

    4 star(s)

    The first stage he called the 'Oral Stage' and said that between birth and around 1 to 2 years old, infants gain satisfaction from putting things into their mouths. Freud called this 'Oral Fixation' and claimed that if weaned of milk, via the breast, too early we could become orally fixated as adults.

  1. A Critical Examination of the Sexual Life of Man In Sigmund Freud.

    With puberty there is generally intensification or the first appearance of sexual interest. Puberty marks the beginning of adolescence. Here the libido is said to be back to consciousness. Puberty sets in changes, which transform the infantile sexual life and its new definitive normal form.

  2. Highlight the key features/tenets of Freud's and Murray's theories of personality. Identify key similarities ...

    They also claimed that needs are not presenting at all times. They find the needs arising in isolation; mostly they saw needs occurring in groups. That's why they considered the outside influences as well. Talking about the method they used, while Freud used his clinical interviews only, Murray and his

  1. Personality, is the deeply ingrained and relatively enduring patterns of thought, feeling and behavior.

    The id and ego is said to have no morality and does not consider right or wrong. The superego is Freud's moral branch of personality and considers whether something is wrong or right, it is often referred to as our conscience.

  2. Past IB Psychology Exam Questions Answers Paper 3

    focus groups, as the participants are by themselves, so may not feel that they have to look of informational social norms, or meet any social norm, as they may not feel they are being judged one on one, as they may feel they are in a group.

  1. Psychology Coursework. In this piece of coursework I will be devising a test to ...

    I will also use an equal amount of males and females in both groups so this also wont affect my results. This will develop Bower's study even further as he only used male participants.

  2. To a criminal psychologist, however, it is not just the external factors surrounding an ...

    people may fall into the same brackets when evaluating using stable characteristics. Things that would be considered in this area would be the age of the witness, their gender and other things like personality etc. The second factor that Cutler and Penrod identified was fairly similar to the first area of the study.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work