• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe and discuss how Sigmund Freud has contributed to Psychology

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe and discuss how Sigmund Freud has contributed to Psychology Sigmund Freud was and still is one of the most influential psychologists and is commonly referred to as 'the father of psychoanalysis' after developing a theory of the human mind and human behaviour as well as clinical techniques in attempting to help neurotics. Born in Frieberg, Montavia in 1856. From the years of 1873-1881 he studied biology, later specialising in neurology at the University of Vienna. Freud developed a theory of mental life called psychoanalysis, which emphasises the importance of the unconscious, sexual instinct and psychosexual development in childhood. When Freud died of cancer in 1939 he left behind six children. His youngest daughter, Anna Freud, went on to study child and development psychology. I will now describe how Freud's development of the unconsious influenced and contributed to psychology. ...read more.

Middle

Freud and a close friend and fellow psychologist Joseph Breuer tried out a form of therapy on a patient known as 'Anna O' or Bertha Pappenheim. Anna O suffered from epilepsy and one of her arms was paralysed as a result of complex seizures, it was later discovered this was the arm she had cradled her dying father with. It was thought that she was unconciously stopping the use of her arm as punishment as she blamed herself for her fathers death. This new form of therapy was called catharsis and that by talking about what had happened when the symptoms started, she would recover a repressed fact and then recover a bit. Although Breuer was the person who found this out, it would later be heavily developed by Freud. What Bertha Pappenheim thought about "Anna O." cannot be known as she is alleged to have destroyed any documents related to her childhood or youthful illness. ...read more.

Conclusion

Below is a diagram of the tripartite theory. So far we have looked at Freud's assumptions that a large part of our life happens at an unconscious level and how case studies such as Anna O have helped to prove these assumptions correct and to add to them. We have also studied the tripartite theory that explains that sexual instinct is the driving force in a person's mental life, which also affects behaviour. However Freud had many more assumptions, for example he thought that dreams are very important and should be interpreted as it may include some thoughts or emotions brought forward by a person's unconscious. Freud also thought that early childhood is very important for the development of the adult personality, this assumption was accepted. A few criticisms of Freud's work is that it is very unscientific, this is because it is difficult to study the unconscious as it can never be seen or experienced. However his influence on psychology has been profound and widespread. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Psychology essays

  1. A study of the psychology of belief with reference to the influence of Freud. ...

    Freud based his "Oedipus Complex" on the ideas of Darwinism, a stage of life in prehistoric men when the family unit was the "primal horde". It consisted of a mother a father and offspring. As the dominant male the father would scare off any male threat to the female.

  2. Anti-social Behaviour Coursework

    > Consider a child who clears snow off a neighbour's drive, and is then given money as a reward. > How can an observer know if the child's behaviour was altruistic or egoistic? > Social learning explanations of altruistic behaviour suggest that, > Young children tend to be motivated by

  1. Explore the work of Sigmund Freud

    Freud used psychodynamic therapies to treat depressed people and focus on resolving the patient's conflicted feelings. These sorts of therapies are often reserved until the depressive symptoms are significantly improved. Freud used hypnosis on some of his patients to understand and cure the human mind.

  2. Personality Psychology

    Case studies rely heavily on the interpretation of the observer, while self-report methods depend upon the memory of the individual of interest. Because of this, these methods tend to be highly subjective and it is difficult to generalize the findings to a larger population (Funder, 2001).

  1. Linking Freudian and Jungian psychology to elements of cultural studies, conceive a useful model ...

    1.2 Jung Jung divided the psyche no longer in the Id, Ego, and Superego, but in consciousness, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious. The three combined Jung calls the self, not to be misunderstood as the ego or consciousness that is only to be regarded as part of the whole.

  2. Theories of Freud Sigmund.

    This stage is linked to weaning or breastfeeding, the stage is for babies from birth to a year old. Freud therefore believed that the early years of development are very important, as the experiences of childhood shape the structure

  1. A Critical Examination of the Sexual Life of Man In Sigmund Freud.

    pleasure the babies receive from sexual gratification and will occasionally use genital stimulation as a means of soothing a fussy or distressed infant (Shaffer, 1989:496) 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM That man is a sexual being is utterly factual and indisputable.

  2. Freud Sigmund - s.

    international recognition??. During the following decade????, Freud's reputation?? continued to grow. But two of his early followers, Alfred Adler??? and Karl Jung??, split?? with Freud and developed their own theories of psychology???. Freud was constantly??? modifying?? his own ideas, and in 1923 he published a revised version????

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work