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Freud Sigmund - s.

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Introduction

Freud Sigmund???? Freud Sigmund (1856-1939) was an Austrian physician?? who revolutionized?? ideas on how the human mind???? works. Freud established the theory?? that unconscious???? motives?? control much behaviour. He thus?? greatly advanced?? the field?? of psychiatry????. His work has helped millions of mentally ill patients?????. His theories have brought new approaches?? in child rearing??, education and sociology???, and have provided new themes?? for many authors?? and artists???. Most people in Western society view?? human behaviour at least?? partially???? in Freudian terms????????. Freud was born on May 8, 1856, in Freiberg???, Moravia????, a region that is now part of Czechoslovakia??????. He was the oldest of eight children, and his father was a wool merchant. When Freud was 4 years old, his family moved to Vienna, the capital of Austria. He graduated?? from the medical school??? of the University of Vienna in 1881. Freud later decided to specialize?? in neurology???, the treatment?? of disorders?? of the nervous system????. In 1885 Freud went to Paris to study under Jean-Martin Charcot?? (1825-1893), a famous French neurologist????. Charcot was working with patients who suffered from a mental illness now called hysteria?????. Some of these people appeared to be blind? or paralyzed??, but they actually had no physical???? defects??. Charcot demonstrated?? that their real problem was mental, and that the physical symptoms?? could be relieved?? through hypnosis??. Freud and another neurologist John Breuer??? ...read more.

Middle

is that human beings love themselves??, that is "autoerotism??????". Children must pass through all of the phase successfully before they become a healthy adult. When the "productive phase???" arrives, people no longer love themselves but seek and select spouses??. This is also the phase of socialization???. Group activities, marriages??, family establishment and child breeding???? follow. The interest and ambitions??? in careers?? as well as?? the sense of responsibility??? are strengthened??. The productive phase is the longest, lasting?? from the age of 17-18 to the death. Freud argued that the Eros???? (life instinct, especially the procreative instinct????) governs?? acts?? of self-preservation????and the tendency?? towards uninhibited????? enjoyment?? of life. Owing to the constraints?? of the social morality??, however, the desires of the sexual instinct cannot be always satisfied. People thus divert?? the libidinal???? energy to other creative???? activities like those of science and art. This is the process of "conversion??" to "sublimation??". If sublimation fails, the desires of human instincts will be driven back??? to the unconscious???. They then become the themes?? of dreams and even the origins of abnormal???? behaviour. On the contrary, people will develop the Thanatos???? (death instinct) if there is no outlet?? for the libidinal energy. The Thanatos produces aggression. It explains partly why wars and aggression occur??. Everyone has both the Eros and Thanatos. On the Mind: Freud divided the mind?? into three parts, i.e. ...read more.

Conclusion

influence on literature and drama??, mostly recently, in the works of such writers as Eugene O' Neill and Tennessee Williams. Unfortunately???, owing to popular misinterpretation????? of Freud's writings, many people have used his theories as a scientific justification?? for increased egocentricity???? in handling?? affairs of daily life. Sex was a taboo?? in the past. Freud regarded?? sexual instincts as the core?? of human behaviour and made sex a popular theme?? for open discussion. Hence??, this led partly to the sex liberation movement????? of the West. Some people even use the Freudian theories to justify?? their unlimited???? sexual behaviour. Psychoanalysis has unintentionally??? fostered?? the idea that repression must be avoided lest???? it leads to "blowing one's top????". It has encouraged the belief?? that education must never be restrictive??? and coercive???. Past A-Level Exam Questions since 1980 1. "Our intellect is a feeble and dependent thing, a plaything and a tool of our impulses and emotions." (Sigmund Freud) Comment upon the impact of this new understanding of human behaviour upon society in the twentieth century. (1982) ???????????????????,??????????????????????(????) ?????????????????????????(1982) 2. Examine the influence of Sigmund Freud's theory on European culture and society. (1996) ?????????????????????(1996) 3. What do you think was the most significant medical discovery in the period 1800-1980? Explain your answer with reference to this discovery on European society. (1998) ???1800-1980??,???????????????????????????????(1998) Past Higher Level Exam Questions in 1981-1991 1. Examine the content and impact of the theories of Sigmund Freud. (1981) ?????????????????(1981) 2. Compare Darwin's theory of evolution and Freud's theories with regard to their influence upon politics and culture in modern Europe. (1987) ??????????????????????????????(1987) 1 ...read more.

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