• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"Is behavior mainly inherited or it is learned?" Discuss based on your knowledge concerning modern Psychological theories.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

"Is behavior mainly inherited or it is learned?" Discuss based on your knowledge concerning modern Psychological theories. The answer to this question is based on the debate of nature and nurture. Nature represents the idea that behavior is inherited while the psychologists who support nature are known as nativists. Hence, nurture is that behavior is learned and those who believe in nurture are known as the empiricists. The nativists position is that a person is born with an inherited "blue print", meaning an inherited disposition such as DNA. And afterwards his behavior will be developed through the process of maturation. So, the environment doesn't affect behavior only when there are methods employed in order to change an individual's nature (e.g.: gene therapy or brain surgery). ...read more.

Middle

To begin with the neurobiological perspective, the aim of this perspective is to relate behavior to events that take place within the body. For instance a behavior such as anxiety is believed that is a consequence of specific brain stimulations. As the neurobiological perspective accounts behavior to biological causes therefore is the nearest perspective to nativists side. Later on, there is the psychoanalytic perspective which believes that behavior is controlled by the ID, which is the restricted impulses, the SUPEREGO, meaning the ideal self created by the society, and the EGO which keeps balance between the ID and the SUPEREGO. This theory is based to the existence of the unconscious (Freud). ...read more.

Conclusion

Last of all is the behavioristic approach which supports that others can observe your behavior (Watson). As well as the stimulus response psychology (Skinner) which studies the stimuli that elect behavioral responses. The reason of behavioristic approach being the closest to nurture is because it focuses on the acquisition of observing all behavior from the environment via conditioning. Even though several opinions for this debate have been stated there are some points where nature and nurture interact with each other. For instance two psychologists showed restricted environmental experience could physically affect the visual cortex of the brain. Finally, we conclude to the fact that behavior is a mixture of both heredity and environment because a biological predisposition present at birth interacts with the experiences that we encounter throughout life. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Response to the question

The above essay is well-written and indicates the candidate is wholly capable of discussing, to a good analytical depth, the Nature vs. Nurture debate as well as implicitly referring to Individual vs. Situational Attribution. This integration really fortifies the answer ...

Read full review

Response to the question

The above essay is well-written and indicates the candidate is wholly capable of discussing, to a good analytical depth, the Nature vs. Nurture debate as well as implicitly referring to Individual vs. Situational Attribution. This integration really fortifies the answer and makes it stand out amongst others (something candidates should value, as the examiners will be marking hundreds of similar essay and small things like this make it a more interesting read). The candidate takes their time with an effective introductory paragraph, outlining the Nature vs. Nurture debate and informing readers of some of the language which is used in psychology too. All in all a very sound response to the question.

Level of analysis

The Level of Analysis here is very good, but there are a few things missing/things to be corrected. Where the answer is good is the candidate's use of an integrated response, drawing on a number of other debates that link to the Nature vs. Nurture debate; they also succeed in giving a balanced argument with plenty of empirical evidence in the form of psychological research (Freud, Freudian theory, Lorenz, etc.). The argument utilises plenty of Psychology-specific language, which indicates to the examiner that there is a confident candidate behind the essay; one who is comfortable and competent enough to discuss psychology using the terms and vocabulary experts use.

Some areas need improvements, such as in the exemplary paragraph on the attribution of aggression, where the candidate provides Freud and Lorenz in support of the Nature debate and no study or evidence for the Nurture debate. The candidate could use the study by Bandura, Ross & Ross into the transmission of aggression and Social Learning Theory here. Also, I would be very, very wary about using Freud as evidence for only the Nature debate when actually, his theories could be concluded to be Interactionist (supporting both Nature and Nurture). The Psychodynamic perspective famously attributes a lot of behaviour to childhood experiences and not neuro-psychological shifts as the Id, Ego and Superego are constituents of the 'mind' and not necessarily the actual physical brain (of course there are parts of his theory that do concern the physical brain) so be wary of the more picky exam boards who will want something more in-line with stringent support of Nature only, like Brunner's study into gene deficiency as a reason for crime, or Raine's PET scans of serial murderers.

Quality of writing

The Quality of Written Communication (QWC) is fair, although some baffling writing choices have been made. I don't know why the candidate felt the need to capitalise all the letter of Id, Ego and Superego, when in fact I don't think any are required at all. Candidates are reminded of the need for good grammar and English when writing long Psychology essays. In a subject with such a complex array of terms and language it is important candidates retain a good QWC, because it the quality lapses and the examiner cannot read it, or if simply silly decisions like the above have been made (i.e. the mistake is not accidental) then they will not achieve what can be considered the easiest marks to get in the entire exam.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by sydneyhopcroft 07/07/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this essay I will evaluate and explain the Social Learning Theory (SLT), which ...

    5 star(s)

    A few hours later their headache is gone. They may conclude that their prayer caused the relief from the headache. They assume the praying caused the healing, when of course it was the few hours that passed which actually caused the healing. They made the mistake of assuming a causal relationship when the action of praying was only related to the consequence of feeling better.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Freud and Behaviourist's Theories

    4 star(s)

    The id is totally un-socialised. On the other hand, we have our superego, which consists of ideas influenced by our parents, which restricts us from doing wrong and is set from early childhood before the child gets a chance to question them.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast two psychological perspectives I am going to research the psychodynamic ...

    3 star(s)

    The school that studies the cognitive approach is called "Cognitivism". The methods of investigation used by the cognitive psychologists are: Experimentation: this is usually performed in the laboratory. For an example the memory experiments are carried out under strictly controlled circumstances where the independent variables are manoueuvered to look for the effect on the number of information sustained.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Findings of the Obedience Studies

    4 star(s)

    The successful outcome of the study is that it brought across a very strong idea of the personality transformation people can experience, depending on the situation that they are put in. however, it brought out the power-hungry and sadistic characters, yet also the fearful and unstable ones, which are maybe sides of people that they didn't want to discover.

  1. Highlight the key features/tenets of Freud's and Murray's theories of personality. Identify key similarities ...

    Finally, during puberty adolescents enter the genital stage. During this stage pleasure is again focused on the genitals. Now, lust is blended with affection, and people become capable of adult love. The above are the main features of Freud's theory of personality. His ideas were dependent on clinical experience.

  2. Different Theories and theorists in Human behaviour

    * Attention and recognition that comes from others (this is basically the same as belongingness, the desire to be needed, however wanting admiration has to do with the need for power.) The people who have lower needs satisfied, are usually the one's with expensive clothes, flash cars and flash house,

  1. Dostoevsky and Maslow

    They become so focused on their struggle to overcome these feelings, of being lost, or alone, or unorganized, and unsafe, that the priority of food becomes pushed aside. But in Maslow's Pyramid the feelings of safety and organization, love and belonging, are all placed higher, or less important, than the need to satisfy hunger.

  2. Structures and functions of the brain

    The brainstem controls several important functions of the body which are alertness, arousal, breathing, blood Pressure, digestion, and heart rate. Components of the brain stem include the medulla and the pons. The medulla contains the brain regions that control breathing, the heart, swallowing, vomiting, and defecation.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work