Is psychodynamic psychology universally accepted?
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IB1 KONTEAS BENNY PSYCHOLOGY IS PSYCHODYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED? Totem and Taboo (1913) is a book Freud regarded as one of his best. It presents a psychological interpretation of the life of primitive peoples. It employs the concepts of psychoanalysis, but, like other books of the time, is also influenced by evolutionary thinking, not just Darwin's theory of biological evolution but the general ideas of intellectual and social evolution as well. In it, Freud accepts the opinion of his age that it is not just our physical selves which are products of evolution; he also adopts the idea, shared by Tylor and Frazer, that we have also evolved intellectually and observes that our social institutions, like our animal species, have traced an unsteady but still upward line of progress. As a result, he argues, just as we find clues to the personality of individual adults in their earlier character as children, so we find in the character of past cultures important clues to the nature of civilization in the present.
Here in specific form we meet the kind of question that does not appear in the works of theorists like Tylor and Frazer. From their intellectualist position, human religious behavior is a conscious endeavour; it represents the effort to use reason to understand the world while, at the same time, it demonstrates a failure to reason correctly. Is it a mistake to believe in totems and taboos, why should anyone continue to do so? Freud finds the answer in the unconscious. He claims that experience with neurotic patients shows the personalities of both disturbed and normal people alike to be strongly marked by doubtful (by the clash of powerful opposing desires. They want to do certain things, and at the same time they do not. Obsessively neurotic people, for example, will sometimes feel extreme grief when a loved one, a father or mother, dies. Yet on probing the unconscious, we often find that it is not love but guilt and hate that actually cause their emotion.
The sons were overcome with guilt and remorse. Wanting desperately to restore the master they had killed, they found in the totem animal a "father substitute" and symbol; they agreed to believe in it, and before it they then swore the oldest of all taboos: "Thou shalt not kill the totem." Over time, this rule was generalized to the entire clan and became the universal commandment against all murder. "'Thou shall not kill" thus undoubtedly became the first moral rule of the human race. Eventualy Greud belived that in the same way all laws were criated frome need, gradually at the same time creating bases on witch civilisation is built and from all the above we understand how in a society totem and taboo eventually are accepted. Even in the most primitive society people obey roles made not as complex as are laws but they work in the same way as ewers. For thus reasons psychodynamic psychology is universally accepted it talks about things that one way or a another are absolutely correct and exist in all cultures but in different way each time and on different levels.
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