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Learning Revision Notes. Important terms and major experiments

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Learning Revision Notes Learning Is a relatively permanent change in behavior which is due to experience Classical Conditioning A form of learning in which an automatic response becomes associated with a previously unrelated stimulus Ivan Pavlov (1990s) Studied dogs The dogs began salivating every time they heard the researchers' footsteps. Salivation is a REFLEX response; it occurs automatically when an animal smells food but Pavlov found that the dogs associated the sound of footsteps to the arrival of food because the two stimuli had occurred together so many times. He figured that he could get his dog to respond to other things too. So, he conducted an experiment. Everytime the food arrived, Pavlov ringed the bell. Eventually he took away the food and only rang the bell. He found that the dog still salivated. Unconditioned stimulus: food Unconditioned response/ natural reflex action: salivation Conditioned stimulus: Bell Conditioned response: Salivation John Watson and Rosalind Raynor (1920) 'Little Albert': created ethical concerns. They intended on extinguishing his fear but the boy was taken away before they could. Unconditioned stimulus: loud noise when metal bar struck Unconditioned response/ natural reflex action: fear Conditioned stimulus: white rat Conditioned response: fear Little Albert was not initially scared of the white rat but when the conditioning began, every time he had the white rat, a metal bar was struck close to him and that caused a fear response. Therefore, whenever he got the white rat, he was scared to play with it. ...read more.


A 2 year old might stop hitting her newborn baby brother when punished but then starts to hit the dog. Punishment doesn't show what the undesirable behavior should be replaced with. Classical Operant Differences Reinforcement Procedures When the UCS is presented with the CS; reinforcement occurs. Reinforcement occurs as the consequence of the animal's response to a stimulus. Origin of behaviour Behaviour starts off as a reflex action. Behaviour starts by random activity of the organism. Similarities Reinforcements are the strengthening of an association between a stimulus and a response in both types of conditioning. The use of classical conditioning - Behavior Therapy 1. Systematic Desensitization * Write a list of increasing situations of the phobia * Teach the phobic relaxation techniques * Once the phobic is completely relaxed, make them experience the first stage * Then move onto the next level once comfortable with the previous one * Keep going until the last stage with the phobic relaxed. If the phobic becomes fearful, the treatment returns to the previous stage. Frog phobia A woman had a phobia of frogs because she had formed some sort of association of it with something else. If on the way to work she saw a frog, she would panic but after six hours of treatment she was no longer scared. The treatment included the phobic looking at pictures of frogs from the library. The aim of this method is that you try and make the phobic less scared and more relaxed because you cannot feel both at the same time. ...read more.


Children are less likely to imitate aggression if the model is punished. Although some children didn't imitate behavior they had observed it. he found that when children were offered a small reward for reproducing behavior they had seen, almost all could do so even though they hadn't produced it spontaneously when they had the chance. Evaluation 1. They are children and it raised ethical concerns because they were being made to watch aggression. This might influence them when they grow older. Reinforcement: If a child imitates a model's behavior and the consequences are rewarding, the child is likely to continue performing the behavior. But, we don't imitate everything we observe. This may be because: * The models aren't important to us * The child knows that behavior isn't appropriate in that setting. * The child has seen that the model's behavior has had unpleasant consequences Through reinforcement, a child will internalize a model's behavior so that it would be able to act as the model would act in a situation it has never seen the model in. Tollman (cognitive mapping) There was a rat in a maze and had to reach the centre to get cheese. It had a mental picture of the maze to get it to it easier. Parke (Imitating) Got two groups of residential boys to watch a video. One group watched violent videos that week and one group watched non-violent videos. The group that watched violent videos was more violent. Houston Charlton The Tollman Psychologist Pavlov Said Skinner What's Watson The Thorndike Point Pavlov Because Bandura He Houston Couldn't Charlton Keep Kohler Working Wolpe ...read more.

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