• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Main Characteristics of Psychology in Egypt

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Main Characteristics of Psychology in Egypt To construct a meaningful picture of psychology as it is practiced in Egypt, the following features may be emphasized: 1. The manner in which Egyptian psychology emerged and has been growing over the years has earned it a solid base for a promising future. In this context, most important is the fact that the discipline made its first appearance in 1911 as part of establishing and operating the first secular university and that the discipline's growth was in synchrony with that of the host institution (Cairo University, 1983, p. 31). Growth in this career enabled Egyptian psychology to have a share in all the strengths the host university has been cherishing. After all, the university was initially founded as a nongovernmental institution and was considered by Egyptian nationals as an investment to help actualize national aspirations for a progressive future. It continues to exist as a prestigious symbol of those aspirations in spite of some adverse events. 2. By the same token, the discipline has been affected by all the major difficulties under which Egyptian universities have been laboring. Such difficulties include the ever-increasing economic hardships encountered by all sectors of the Egyptian society, heavy-handedness of the bureaucracy in managing academic affairs, the ever-worsening ratio of the number of students to the number of instructors, etc. ...read more.

Middle

In 1925, the Egyptian University was officially recognized by the Ministry of Education, which began to supply it with the necessary budget. This event triggered a number of decisions pertaining to its administrative organization. One such decision stipulated that the Faculty of Arts be divided into a number of departments, one of which would be devoted to philosophical studies (Cairo University, 1983, p. 59). Psychology was apportioned some lectures under the umbrella of this department and was, therefore, to be taught by instructors of philosophy (who, incidentally, were mostly French). In 1940, however, the teaching of psychology became the responsibility of an Egyptian psychologist, Y. Mourad, who had just returned from France after qualifying as "docteur des lettres" in experimental psychology under H. Pieron and H. Delacroix. This event marked the beginning of a new stage in the progression of the discipline in the Egyptian academia. The late 1920s, however, witnessed an event that had a significant effect on the course of development of the discipline. In 1929, the Egyptian government had invited the Swiss educator Clapar�de as a temporary adviser. The mandate was to review the national system of (pre-university) education and to submit recommendations for improvement (Ali, 1995, p. 167). The method Clapar�de followed in fulfilling his duty was instructive. ...read more.

Conclusion

In 1992, the total number of young people who graduated with BA degrees in psychology since 1958 was estimated at about 20,000 (Abou-Hatab, 1992). Of these, at least 5% are thought to have earned a Ph.D. degree. Research Interests Numerous small-scale research articles are published either by Egyptian journals of psychology or journals of social studies. These works cover a broad variety of topics. The area that has been capturing most of our researchers' interests is that of "Egyptianizing" and/or restandardizing Western psychometric tools. Probably the activity that follows, in terms of saliency, is the replication of some Western studies carried out with the help of newly constructed tools. In this case, the explicitly stated aim would be the making of transcultural comparisons. In additions, a few cases of long-term projects addressing significant research problems (which were not imported as ready-made researchable questions from abroad) have to be mentioned. Since 1966, M.I. Soueif and associates have been conducting a series of field investigations on drug use and abuse under the sponsorship of the National Center for Social and Criminological Research in Cairo (Soueif, 1985a). Another long-term project carried out by the same principal investigator and colleagues focused on creativity, personality, and psychiatric disorders (Badr, 1988; Darweesh, 1978; Elwan, 1980, Ghobashi, 1980; Soueif, 1959). A third elaborate research project was conducted by Soueif and assistants on extreme response sets (Farrag, 1965; Hannourah, 1967, cited in Soueif, 1968; Soueif, 1958, 1968; Yunis, 1976). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Psychology essays

  1. Ego's and social health

    This is what Jung (1959) refers to as Ego Inflation. However, if the parents fail to give healthy feedback or display boundaries and create limits for the child, this child will grow into an adult exhibiting negative ego inflation. This is because a negative ego was formed in early childhood

  2. Personality Psychology

    Following in this tradition, more modern researchers have identified other biological processes that influence personality. Other researchers believe the origins of personality reside in deep rooted psychological conflicts or prior learning experiences. The diversity of these theoretical perspectives is one of the things that make personality psychology such a rich and interesting area of study (Hogan & Johnson, 1997).

  1. Gender Differences In Prejudice

    They had the option to withdraw at any point in the progress. Results Summary of scores on social distance scale Males Females Mean 8.7 8.9 Range 1 1 Individual scores of males and females on the social distance scale The mean for females is 8.9; the mean for males is 8.7 and the range for both conditions is 1.

  2. How do we define Helping Behavior?

    EXECUTION of our experiment Our experiment was conducted on 7th, May, 2004, at 12:00 noon, at the Academic Concourse of the HKUST. Two of our male group-mates, Kenneth and Calvin were selected to be the experimenters. The Control experiment was firstly done and the Test experiment followed.

  1. Linking Freudian and Jungian psychology to elements of cultural studies, conceive a useful model ...

    1.2.1 The personal unconscious The personal unconscious is that part that is filled with repressed or forgotten experiences of the individual which were once conscious. This content can influence the individual through dreams, fantasies and complexes. 1.2.2 The collective unconscious and the Archetypes The collective unconscious is not formed by

  2. Freud, Lucian (1922- ), German-born British painter.

    Around 1956 Freud exchanged his finely pointed sable brushes for stiffer hogshair and began to loosen his style, gradually amplifying his touch. Woman Smiling 1959 (no. 45, shown in room 3) marked a transformation in his painting style and can be seen as a landmark work.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work