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Organization Development (OD)

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Organization Development (OD) is a paradigm combining humanistic philosophy and theories about organizational change. The objective of OD is to design organizations that foster individual growth as well as economic prosperity. OD assumes that organizations must be guided to the desired state by an active intervention supported by management. The managerial effort must therefore be effective in overcoming the inherent opposition to change within organizations. A successful OD project will create a learning organization that is dynamic instead of rigid. Organization Development is defined by Cummings and Worley (1993, p. 691) as: "A system wide effort applying behavioral science knowledge to the planned creation and reinforcement of organizational strategies, structures, and processes for improving an organization's effectiveness." Another definition is that "OD is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization development and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization's processes, using behavioural science knowledge." (Beckhard, 1969, p. 9, quoted from Buchanan & Huczynski, 1997, p. 487). In essence, OD is a planned process of change (Burke, 1994, p. 12). Planned change requires a systemic, goal-orientated approach applied with diligence over time. It claims reliance on valid knowledge from the behavioural sciences: such as sociology, social psychology, anthropology and management theory. Organizational development also includes changes in decision making process, shape and nature of groups, work procedures, job descriptions and roles. ...read more.


By doing so, erroneous in intervention progress could be detected earlier, thus it will lead the organization development intervention to more effective process. These explanations underlined the two distinct types of organization development evaluation, which are evaluation use to guide the interventions implementation process and the other type is where the evaluation use to assess organization development intervention overall impact. When the evaluation use as guidance to the interventions implementation process, it is the organization development practitioner tasks to evaluate step by step intervention process in order to get more effective outcome. For example, if there was accompany who wants to change their work system, it is recommends for organization development intervention investigator to evaluate the process of changing before the changes, during the changes and after the changes. The evaluation could be done by monitoring and prepare for questionnaire survey for each stage. Finally, when each stage questionnaire is completed by the employees, the interventions investigator could combine the data and compare it in order to obtain ultimate result. On the other hand, when the evaluation process uses to assess the overall interventions impact, the organization development practitioner evaluates the final outcome of the interventions. In fact, many organization development practitioners evaluate the overall intervention impact and disregard the step by step evaluation on intervention process. ...read more.


Another factor that makes is responsible for te ignorance of the evaluating process is that the author or the organization does not want to publicize their failures- the likelihood that they failed the interventions (Woodman and Wayne, 1985). Reports of the interventions evaluation outcome are often hidden. Lack of gathering data could also be one of the main factors in the failure of evaluation of the organization development process. This is may be caused by the lack of choosing groups of survey. Tepstra (1982) mentioned that there is organization development intervention variable that might be related to this effect. Occupational group (subjective characteristics), is where the interventions evaluation investigator only use certain status in organization as their data source. For example, the evaluation investigator only asks the managers for the survey, and he/she disregards other employees, such as administrative employees, factory employees, and so forth. In fact, employees feedback is most important when it comes to the whole organization. The wider the coverage of survey, the better the evaluation outcome. Additionally, wider evaluation will help the organization to improve thoroughly. Reference List Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. (1997) Organizational behaviour (3rd edition), Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall. Cummings, T. and Worley, C. (1993) Organization Development and Change (5th edition), West Publishing Company, Minnesota. Cummings, T.G., Worley, C.G., (1999), Organizational Change and Development (7th Edn), South Western, Ohio. Hanson, P.G., (1995), Answers to questions most frequently asked about Organization Development, Sage Publication, London. Burke Waddell Basu and Das Tepstra Woodman and Wayne ...read more.

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