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Psychoanalytical Theory.

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Introduction

Psychoanalytical Theory. The Psychoanalytic theory is a coherent and comprehensive explanation of the acquisitation of the personality. Dr Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was a Jewish man who was brought up in Vienna. Freud, who was worshiped by his family and nicknamed 'Golden Siggy', is now often referred to as "The godfather of psychoanalysis". It was Sigmund Freud who developed the Psychoanalytic approach, which is a radically different theory. The term psychoanalysis can be used to relate to both treatment and therapy. This theory analyses human behaviour and personality and offers methods of treating those with psychological problems (therapy). There are many therapies, which Freud used to investigate the unconscious mind and they are the main ways in which modern day psychoanalysis is used. These therapies include Free association where patients lie on a couch and are encouraged to speak out load every thought that comes into their mind, however shocking, strange, meaningless or minor those thoughts may appear. Believing that dreams are significant and if analysed appropriately they could give massive clues and insight into the patient unconscious mind, Freud therefore used this approach. He called this Dream analysis. Freud also believed that many apparent 'accidents' indicated unconscious wishes, therefore he analysed these slips of tongues, which are also now known as Freudian slips or parapraxes. ...read more.

Middle

Freud implies that too much stimulation which can be caused through over strict toilet training, can lead too an anally retentive personality, that is obsessive about cleanliness and tidiness. A generally pessimistic, mean and excessively self-controlled personality would emerge here. Too little stimulation can lead too what Freud named the anally repulsive personality. This type of personality would be over generous, untidy, messy, disorganised and sometimes even sadistic. Both of these stages can be criticised here because individuals may include traits from both the area that suggests too little stimulation and too much stimulation. Therefore we cannot say an adults personality is either or, as it may be in the middle. In between the ages of four and six years approximately, the child reaches the Phallic Stage. At this stage the focus of the libido is on the genitals. The pattern of development, which has hitherto been the same for both sexes, takes a different course for boys than for girls. It is here that Freud suggests that the child begins to have sexual feeling for the opposite sex parent and see's the same sex parent as the rival. Freud named this the Oedipus complex. For boys during this stage, it is suggested that he has intense sexual feelings toward his mother. The young boy considers his father to be a rival for his mother's affections. ...read more.

Conclusion

It operates on the morality principle and is often likened to the conscience. Freud saw the personality as a dynamic balance between the three aspects of personality - hence the term psychodynamic theory. Suggesting that it is a difficult job of the ego to find a middle route between the selfish demands of the id and the often unrealistically high moral standards of the super ego. It is impossible to find evidence to support the existence of the id, the ego or the libido or death instincts that Freud hypothesised - despite his claims to have made a scientific breakthrough. Psychoanalytic theory has practical applications such as Psychoanalytic therapy for example when applied to adults and children, for example, eating disorders and in other areas of child development, such as explaining gender roles and aggression. Sigmund Freud has contributed massively to the knowledge psychology, the enormous body of work, which he produced, including that which identifies and acknowledges the importance of early childhood on later behaviour, is a theme that has been taken up by many other researchers including the famous John Bowlby. Despite the many criticisms which have been made about Freud's theories, people still find them and his explanations a source of inspiration, and, at least in parts, temptingly believable. Dawn-Aleah Andrew. 07/05/07 2 Dawn-Aleah Andrew ...read more.

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