• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10

Psychoanalytical Theory

Extracts from this document...


Criminology Psychoanalytical Theory Jessica Komperda Dr. Craig Criminal Justice 242 December 8, 2003 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the first person to initiate the thought of psychoanalysis. According to Friedlander (1947), classical Freudian psychoanalytic explanations of delinquency focus on abnormalities or disturbances in the individual's emotional development from early childhood. Since then many people have amended his original writings and presently there are numerous versions Freud's original psychoanalytical theory. Many of these recent versions are similar to the original version with the exception that they are updated to current times. Few new models are extremely different from Freud's theory. Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2004) describe the psychoanalytical theory as follows: "In criminology, a theory of criminality that attributes delinquent and criminal behavior to a conscience that is either so overbearing that it arouses excessive feelings of guilt or so weak that it cannot control the individual's impulses" (p. G-6). Freud stated in the text "The Ego and the Id" (1961) that it was a surprise to find that an increase in the Ucs. sense of guilt can turn people into criminals. But it is undoubtedly a fact. In many criminals, especially youthful ones, it is possible to detect a very powerful sense of guilt which exists before the crime, and is therefore not its result but its motive. It is as if it was a relief to be able to fasten this unconscious sense of guilt on to something real and immediate (p.52). ...read more.


Displacement is an ego defense mechanism and can be defines as the process for substituting an acceptable goal for an unacceptable goal of an Id motive. In displacement, the Ego resolves a conflict between the Id and the Superego in the real world by making an acceptable compromise. Another defense mechanism is sublimation. This is the process of substituting a socially desirable goal for a socially harmful goal. In sublimation, teenagers often sublimate their sexual energy into a sport. Adults may move themselves into their work rather than to pursue a divorce. The Ego uses many other defense mechanisms to protect it from conflict between the Id and the Superego. These defense mechanisms may be in the form of denial, projection, identification, intellectualization, reaction formation, and aggression. All together, there are about twenty defense mechanisms that the Ego uses. Everyone, at some point and time in their lives, will use some sort of defense mechanisms. Over using these defense mechanisms will, over time, result in the Ego becoming detached from reality and, in time, can cause psychological disorder. Psychoanalysis involves an effort to understand defenses and unconscious motives during self-destructing behaviors (Ackers, 1999). Also included in the psychoanalytical theory is psychosexual development. In psychosexual development there are five stages that humans normally pass. The five stages are the oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital stages. In the oral stage, which occurs until about one year of life, the Id gratification is fixated on the mouth. ...read more.


We notice at once that there might have been another result, and that we might have been just as well able to understand and explain the latter (p. 226). Empirical studies are having a hard time testing the stages of human development. Critics are agreeing with the studies; that with few little concepts it is hard to understand how different stages of human development lead to criminality and deviance. Along with critics, there have been numerous people studying and advancing Freud's psychoanalytic theory. Two very prominent people are Stanton Samenow and Samuel Yockelson. Together these two men have studied Freud's theory inside and out. They have made numerous contributions to this theory that are still being practiced today. Thanks to these two men, and many others, the psychoanalytic theory is alive and active today. Without their contributions and the contributions of others, the psychoanalytic theory might have become out dated. Many people have discouraged Freud's theory; that one could have psychological problems that dwell deep within the person. However, Freud did not let this hinder his work in any way. He has shown us that the mind is a powerful tool that is capable of many things. Freud's psychoanalytic theory has its advantages as well as disadvantages. Overall, it has made an impact on the study of criminality and deviance. This theory and others have been a building block for which we link crime and deviance to. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this essay I will evaluate and explain the Social Learning Theory (SLT), which ...

    5 star(s)

    Realism * Naturalistic observation can allow a researcher to determine if experimental findings apply outside the laboratory conditions. * Realism can be ensured for the observation if the researcher remains undetected. Demand characteristics * If the researcher is undisclosed and hidden, this also allows the participants to behave more naturally,

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Perspectives on Divorce

    3 star(s)

    person, someone might get a divorce because their ID tells them they want to have multiple partners, and not want to be in a committed relationship.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How do id, ego and superego, each contribute to Freud's concept of analytical psychology? ...

    his urge, but also forms a plan to obtain water, perhaps by finding a drinking fountain. While the ego is still in the service of the id, it borrows some of its psychic energy in an effort to control the urge until it is feasibly satisfied.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Freud's theory of psycho-sexual development

    5 star(s)

    The little girl feels wronged and becomes envious of boys who have something that they do not have - a penis. According to Freud, such an envy would "leave eradicable traces on their development and the formation of their character and which will not be surmounted in even the most

  1. Peer reviewed

    How useful is psychoanalytical approach to understanding a person? Choose one of Freud's case ...

    3 star(s)

    This is where the sexual drive develops. This is then followed by the oral stage (examining objects through the mouth), the anal stage (where the child takes pleasure in defecation) and then the phallic stage (where there is an interest in the genitals).

  2. Critically evaluate Nancy Chodorow's theory of the origins of gender identity in childhood. In ...

    For the female, Chodorow believes the identification process is relational dependant on the quality and closeness relationship with her mother. The girl then becomes a separate individual through 'secondary identification' (Chodorow 1978). Chodorow is in agreement with Freud's belief that a girl will feel hostility at some stage towards her

  1. Uncovering the Defense Mechanisms in the Maya Epigraphy

    It led to the depletion of resources that created leaner times, and as a result the Maya civilization dissolved in order to survive by blending outward and losing their original hierarchal structure. The Maya culture is alive and thriving within the borders of Central America, including Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, as well as the Yucatan.

  2. Structure and functioning of the personality in Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory

    Yet, he had to discover how does this basic drive result in so many forms of behavior? Freud had also an early description of human motivation, which stated that we are driven to maximize pleasure and to avoid pain or unpleasantness.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work