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Psychodynamic Theories

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

Annie Hou IB psychology Psychodynamic Theories What is it to be human through the lens of psychodynamics? Most psychodynamic came in the idea from the development of a early life of childhood, which are in some part of the unconscious. Evolutionists have recognized that evolutionary psychoanalysis have a big gap between psychoanalytic theory and the extrospective biological and social sciences. As for their methods, they observed more closely in perspective's contributions and it become very important in psychodynamic theory to the study of psychology. For psychodynamic considerations there are four main topics. Reductionism, falsifiability, universality and retrospective accounts and fallible memories. As Reductionism is the idea to explain the behaviors of human reducing the way of explaning the psyche function of psychodynamic. It is often in literary psychobiographies, which explains the behavior of some famous person but it cant hurt anyone, except it might ruin the persons reputation on the subject. Fasifiability it's " theory that is impossible to disconfirm in principle is not a scientific theory, which you can't prove it." (Tavis & Wade, 2000) This made many of the psychologist theories being disconfirmed, so they only depends on the popularity of their proponents than on their content. Universality is what involved with everyone. An example, "if a gay man goes into therapy for help with emotional problems, a therapist cannot logically conclude that all gay men have emotional problems, gay men who are not in therapy would have to be studied."

Middle

(Erikson, 1966) In Erikson's eight stages or social stages the methodology use was "a favorable ratio of basic trust over mistrust is the first step in psychosocial adaptation, a favorable ratio of autonomous will over shame and doubt..."(Erikson, 1966) Shame and doubt is the next stage of the trust and mistrust. As all of us know that psychology was never a "pure psychology", but is a complex psychobiology, which is an aspect that increased being cryptic now. In the history of psychoanalysis of Freud, it mentioned that "A supreme irony lies in Freud's development of concepts like censorship and repression and his clinical attempts to overcome their supposedly pathogenic affects through psychotherapy" (Sulloway, 1992) This happened when Freud began to study, he felt pressured to show the world of his psychoanalysis until once he had became famous because he treated the "rat man" of one of his patient and that is how when Freud started his methodology studies from. Many studies on methodology came from the past of childhood developments too. The influences of childhood developments had been studied by Freud, Horney, Adler, Erikson and object-relation. As Jung he sees it only one way, which means its one path of the childhood road not like Erikson's who made it into a eight stages path of childhood development.

Conclusion

Some societies, for example, make the transition from one stage to another relatively easy. If you know you are going to be a farmer like your mother and father and you have no alternative, then moving from adolescence into young adulthood is not a terribly painful step (unless you hate farming)." (Tavris & Wade, 2000) As the matter of fact, most of Freud's followers and friends were all based on his under studies once you put all the psychodynamic theories together in one piece. "Psychodynamic" is a group of theories that emphasized or influenced on the instinct drives and forces. The most important is the development experiences in shaping a person's personality. Focusing on the childhood it is what influenced the unconscious drives and forces but it also got criticized "psychodynamic psychology has been produced widespread controversy for having new ideas and more researches. Over all in summary, the conscious and unconscious studies, free association methodology (Ethic), childhood, Culture and gender in psychodynamic views is that there's no absolute femininity or masculinity. Woman and men are equal; it doesn't depend on biological ways but more dependent in our society. I think psychodynamic is to let us become who we truly are. It is universal and we gain and lose of our skills through out our lives. Even though, that psychology can never be proved that there's no answer to it, everything is jus a consideration or in theory that we called it Fasifiability.

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