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Psychological factors

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H/W 23rd January 2011 Psychological factors Arousal is general physical and psychological activity. It is the readiness and excitation to perform. If a player's excitement is too high then they tend to make abnormal decisions during the game and their performance will drop completely. On the other hand if their excitement is not high enough, they will fail to be productive. This is referred to as the inverted U hypothesis. Some effects of arousal on sports performance include muscular tension, decision-making speed, concentration and focus, rhythm and coordination. Arousal increases muscular tension by stimulating blood flow. People with low arousal levels exhibit less tension than people with heightened arousal levels. Rhythm and coordination is necessary for performance during sports and athletic activities to complete precise and efficient muscular movements. ...read more.


Personality is the quality or condition of an individual. Personality can have a profound effect on the positive or negative experience of sports for those involved. Such effects can either help or hinder the athlete, depending on the emotion that the athlete chooses to express and the situation in which he or she choose to express that emotion. Personalities are often described by how introverted or extroverted the individual is. Introverted people tend to be quiet and thoughtful as extroverted people are more loud and excitable. Introverts tend to like sports which require concentration and individual performances. Extroverts prefer team sports which are exciting and fast paced. Concentration is ability to focus mental effort on task at hand while ignoring distractions. ...read more.


Extrinsic motivation is more common within sports, factors such as peer pressure and money. Motivation can have major effects on how an individual carries out a certain task and how much effort is put in to it. Motivational basis of achievement can be quite varied, as there are some individuals that although are highly motivated may not be very successful. Athletes, who are motivated, are more likely to want to do their best, not only in the competitions, but also in the training. Usan Bolt has been having problems moving out of the blocks at pace at the beginning of the race and he starting to doubt in his own ability. This is because of anxiety as his confidence is decreasing which could reduce his performance. The heavy breathing, chest pains, tension and sudden lack of confidence in routine athletic performance represent symptoms of anxiety in many athletes when playing sport. ...read more.

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