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Sigmund Freud 1856 - 1939.

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Introduction

Jamie Thompson 12C 6th October 2003 Sigmund Freud 1856 - 1939 Sigmund Freud was born on May 6th, 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia, which is now known as Pribor in the Czech Republic. Freud developed the techniques of "psycho-analysis" for treating psychological and emotional disorders. He graduated as a doctor of medicine from the Medical School of the University of Vienna in 1881. In the September of 1891, Freud moved to 19 Berggasse in Vienna where he lived and worked for the next 47 years. Freud first used the term "psycho-analysis" in his 1896 paper, "The Aetiology of Hysteria". Six years later in the October of 1902, a circle of physicians who followed Freud's work began weekly discussions on his theory of "psycho-analysis". As time went by, the group came up with more theories and more ideas to justify their claims. So in-depth did they become with their studies that they developed a group based on the studies themselves, called the "Vienna Psycho-Analytical Society" in 1908. In 1910, the "International Psycho-Analytical Association" was formed in Nuremberg under it's first President; a Swiss psychologist by the name of Carl Jung. ...read more.

Middle

Freud's account of the unconscious, and the psychoanalytic therapy associated with it, is best illustrated by his famous model of the structure of the mind created in 1923. It has many similarities with the account of the mind put forward by Plato over 2000 years earlier. The theory is called 'tripartite' because, again, like Plato, Freud distinguished three structural elements within the mind, which he called the 'id, ego, and super-ego'. The 'id' is that part of the mind in which sexual drives are situated that require satisfaction. The 'super-ego' is the part that contains the 'conscience'. The 'ego' is the conscious created by the tensions and interactions between the 'id' and the 'super-ego', which has the task of merging their conflictions. It is because of this notion that the mind is thought to be a dynamic "energy system". All streams of consciousness belong in the 'ego', the contents of the 'id' belong permanently to the unconscious mind, and the 'super-ego' is an unconscious 'screening mechanism' which attempts to limit the pleasure seeking drives of the 'id' by the employment of 'rules'. ...read more.

Conclusion

This shows that Freud's theory on the unconscious is well founded and as far as we know, correct. As I commented on in previous paragraphs, there is a constant 'battle' going on between the two sections of the unconscious mind: the ego and the id. The super-ego acts as a sort of rationalisation process between the two - almost like a referee. It is this mixture of biological, instinctual processes that makes the unconscious mind something puzzling, yet fascinating and thus exciting to concur. Despite these theories being formulated decades ago, it is obvious that they hold significant relevance today. The ego, said Freud, "represents reason and good sense". The super-ego is the last part of the personality to emerge and represents the internalisation of demands of society, parents and communities etc. It is the fulfilment of both these procedures that makes the unconscious mind what it is. It is for this reason that it is still relevant today: people are instinctually thrill seekers, and thrill seeking is what satisfies all parts of the mind - the ego, the id and the super-ego. Freud developed this concept years ago, yet it still applies unflinchingly to modern day psychology. ...read more.

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