• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Structure and functioning of the personality in Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

PSYCHOLOGY ESSAY Part a.) Structure and functioning of the personality in Freudian psychoanalytic theory. Sigmund Freud, as the creator of psychoanalytic theory, has begun his career as a neurologist, treating patients with hypnosis to cure hysteria. Because it had almost no affect on curing the patient, he discovered the method of free association, in which patients say whatever comes to their mind. By listening and noticing what patients were saying, he found some similarities in their memories of dreams and their childhood memories. For an easier understanding he compared our mind to an iceberg. One part (that is above the surface) represents our conscious mind; the other part (that is under the surface) represents our unconscious mind. The unconscious mind should not be confused with "being unconscious" and unconsciousness which is loss of consciousness. He claimed that unconscious mind affects the largest part of our thoughts and behavior and that all our emotions and actions have causes in our unconscious mind. Although many people don't agree with Freud, his idea that people react for a reason is accepted. (The Psychopathology of Everyday life - 1901). Most of our behavior is, however, led by our unsatisfied drives and unconscious wishes. ...read more.

Middle

Nursing; sucking, swallowing and biting gratify an infant. Gratification may result in trust and independence and over- gratification or frustration may result in passivity, gullibility, immaturity, unrealistic optimism and manipulative personality. The second stage is the anal stage (around 1,5 - 3 years). The focus of gratification shifts to the anal region. Pleasure comes from the process of elimination - retention and expulsion of feces. At the age of two, a child faces a major challenge: toilet training. For the child, bowel movement is intensively pleasurable. The infant experiences the conflicts between the demands of Id and the external world. The parents force the child with their demands about toilet training. The choice is between following the demands of Id or the demands of parents, who are the most important persons in a child's life. The result is either relatively traumatic or stormy and intense. If the parents are moderate, the child eventually learns that self-control and mastery is useful. If the parents are too strict this may result in over - cleanliness or messiness. As ego grows stronger, the child begins to move into the third stage - the phallic stage (3 - 5 years). ...read more.

Conclusion

Their fathers do not raise children, but by their uncles and boys have dreams that something has happened to the uncle. This shows that they are not jealous, but perhaps scared of powerlessness. He proved that the Oedipus complex is not universal. Freud's critics claim that Freud put together pieces of his behavior, of his own children and his patients. He was often too sure of himself. According to Eysenck, he was neurotic and he argued that his theory has to be tested by experiments and observations and its truth or falsity has to be objectively determined. Kline, for instance, thought that his theory should be seen as a collection of hypothesis and Fisher and Greenburg thought that some parts of his theory are true and they should just be reshaped. On the other side, Boring thought that Freud's genius in commonly accepted, despite of his theories. Human personality is relatively fixed. That means that we truly have inborn drives and our personality is determined by them, as well as by environmental events. We also appear from psychoanalytic theory as passive creatures. Our unconscious seems to control all what we say, do and think. And finally, as Freud noted, the goal of psychoanalysis was to ensure that "were Id was, there shall ego be."(1933) page 2 / 5 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this essay I will evaluate and explain the Social Learning Theory (SLT), which ...

    5 star(s)

    For example, if a student says 'I didn't go to the library'. The researcher may think that they were too lazy to go to the library and then bother to ask them to expand on that point. However, it may just be that the library was closed that day.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and Evaluate Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory and Method

    3 star(s)

    Projection: - Denial occurs when a person who has experienced horror blocks out the events from awareness, refusing to acknowledge reality. Repression is explained as a person not being able to recall a threatening situation, person or a specific event in their lives for fear of alarm or anxiety, these incidents or times have been repressed into the unconscious.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Freud's theory of psycho-sexual development

    5 star(s)

    or even indifference at the sight of a penis; "her covetousness, when it exists, results from a previous evaluation of virility [which] Freud takes for granted, when it should be accounted for"16. De Beauvoir also discounts it as being instinctual, as the sovereignty of the father should arise from a social origin instead, again, unaccounted for by Freud.

  2. Critically evaluate Nancy Chodorow's theory of the origins of gender identity in childhood. In ...

    This makes the girl's identification with the mother stronger and she in turn takes on the submissive role involved in recognition of being 'second best'. She imitates what she sees as her mother's role and this is the start of her feminine identity.

  1. Highlight the key features/tenets of Freud's and Murray's theories of personality. Identify key similarities ...

    These methods were used by Murray and his colleagues to analyze subjects' personality. To conclude, we found that Murray's theory also included Freud's concepts but their language is wider than that of Freud. For example, either than biological influence, they also considered psychological and social needs.

  2. Psychoanalytical Theory.

    infancy and childhood may have a formative impact on later development, which remains in a central issue about nature of development. Freud was an innovative theorist who constantly revised his theory and his followers have moved toward a decreased emphasis on instinctual forces and an increased emphasis on the effects of social experience.

  1. Learning Revision Notes. Important terms and major experiments

    When a rat or pigeon was put inside, Skinner noticed that after having pressed the lever accidentally and received the food pellet, the animal needed less and less time before it pressed the lever again because receiving a food pellet was a desirable consequence.

  2. What is hypnosis?

    'There are a number of people, academics above all, who simply do not believe in the existence of mind. They think that this a naive belief held by the rest of us, and that the phenomena attributed to our minds are best explained otherwise.'

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work