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Archaeological Instruments - 11th Century.

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ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS - 11TH CENTURY When we talk about the 11th century two important periods come to our minds: Viking�s and Norman�s period ( principally in Europe). This two groups were known as conquerors, because in every time they have to expand their "empire", they used it in order to obtain more and more territories. United Kingdom was one of the conquered countries during the 11th century, but although the normans won they had a very diffivult battle in land. Thanks to the archaeology, now we can know about the instruments, weapons and other things that characterized this century. WAR The weapons below are replicas of the ones used in the 11th century. When they were fighting also, they include spears, swords, knives, hand axes and the large Dane Axes which were used by the Saxons at the Battle of Hastings. The helmet shown in the next picture is called a spangenhelm. It is conical so as to deflect blows. ...read more.


The swords were the most important weapons they used for combats: Viking Age ~ 700 to 1066 AD Viking swords average about 37 inches in length overall and will, especially toward the later part of the period, show increasing taper towards the point and a deeper central fuller in the center of each blade face. Pattern welding diminishes during the middle of this epoch to be replaced by iron inlaid names and designs usually formed with twisted rods, such as were used in pattern-welding, hot-forged into the surface of the blade. The pommels and guards generally have a base of iron sometimes covered by non-ferrous metals often in geometric designs. The phrase "Viking sword" may be somewhat of a misnomer as similar swords are seen throughout Europe at this time, even in central western Europe, and with only a few exceptions, even if a design were made in only one area, trade scattered it widely. Norman Period ~ 1066 to 1180 AD The evolution of the Viking sword continues with blades becoming, on average, three or four inches longer. ...read more.


The scenes are joined into a linear sequence allowing the viewer to "read" the entire story starting with the first scene and progressing to the last. The Tapestry would probably have been displayed in a church for public view. History is written by the victors and the Tapestry is above all a Norman document. In a time when the vast majority of the population was illiterate, the Tapestry's images were designed to tell the story of the conquest of England from the Norman perspective. It focuses on the story of William, making no mention of Hardrada of Norway nor of Harold's victory at Stamford Bridge. The following are some excerpts taken from this extraordinary document. JEWELRY Both men and women wore necklaces. These might be simple ones with a couple of beads on a thread or leather thong, or more elaborate ones, as shown here. Most of the beads here are millefiori, with some amber and bone ones. Wood, clay, semi-precious stones and plain glass were also used for beads. The beads are arranged in an irregular pattern. The trefoil (three lobed) brooch is a design which Viking women used to fasten their large triangular cloaks. ...read more.

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