• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"BismarckFailed To Control The Catholic Church In Germany" Discuss.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

"Bismarck Failed To Control The Catholic Church In Germany" Discuss Witold Kozlowski 6EN This essay will set out to present the reasons for Bismarck's failure to control the Catholic Church in Germany. It will mainly concentrate on the May Laws, since the Church's strong opposition to this particular legislation, was what brought about the causes of Bismarck's failure. The doctrine of papal infallibility by Pope Pius IX, published on 18 July 1870, immediately created a division within the German Catholics. The New Catholics regarded the question of papal infallibility as another of his attributes to be accepted, while the Old Catholics found this objectionable. Both sides of the dispute appealed to the state: the former for the support of the Pope's bulla; the latter for protection against the Episcopal inhibitions disallowing them to perform their functions (mainly university professors). ...read more.

Middle

The extreme measures contained in these laws were to force the 'weak' Catholics into utter submission. Without going into great detail of the May Laws the fundamental aim of this legislation was to make Germans attach more importance to the state than to the Church. This was done mainly by establishments such as: the state taking complete control over education, making Church appointments veto-able by the state, making civil marriage and state examinations for clergy (in philosophy, history and German literature) compulsory. Further on, most religious orders were closed down and the state discontinued maintenance for Catholic bishops and priests. Contrary to Bismarck's expectations, the reaction of the Church against these laws was exceptionally strong. The clerics built up a powerful and extraordinarily well-organised party, with great financial resources and influential press. This was the Catholic Centre Party, which informally already existed (since it consisted of Catholics). ...read more.

Conclusion

Furthermore, Bismarck failed to note that by taking over matters such as education, vetoing church appointments, etc., of the German Catholic Church, he stumbled onto the main ideas of the Catholic Church, as a whole, which was an international institution; and a powerful to that, with tremendous resources, power and influences in Europe. It was only when he faced the well-organised Catholic Centre Party, backed up by the whole Catholic Church, did he realise that his failure of controlling the Church lay in his misjudgment of the Catholics' response. Nevertheless, the government made no effort to enlist the sympathy of educated Catholics for the cause of freedom of opinion, which might have lessened the fierce and united Catholics' riposte thus leading to compromise on the issue of the May Laws, instead of complete withdrawal from the idea. Furthermore, a subtler legislation against the Catholics might have not caused such a united stance against the state hence gaining some control over the German Catholic in place of none. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Places of Worship section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Places of Worship essays

  1. Team Nicaragua Journal, July 7-18, 2005

    They got a lot of funny stares from the others in the airport. While in Texas, I spoke with Kris Machado. C- Kris, how are you? K- Tired. C- So we're in Texas, and they have a national song- K- National?

  2. Why was the Catholic Church so weak by 1780?

    Europe and were in many ways the 3'embodiment of baroque Catholicism' of this era. They held a truly privileged position as the 4'educators of the elite the confessors of kings and evangelized on the furthest frontiers of overseas empires'. Even the Vatican subscribed to Jesuitism and it was closely associated with the ruling elites.

  1. Discussion on why Christianity failed to gain popularity in modern Japan?

    Turning into the 21st century, ecumenical1 efforts are on the rise , but still represent an exception. 1. Ecumenical: seeking worldwide Christian unity. No clear sense of identity as a Japanese church. Over the last few decades the church in Japan has gained almost complete independence from foreign funding and personnel, but not from foreign theology or methodology.

  2. The Catholic Church was the single most powerful and influential force throughout virtually all ...

    "During the sixth and seventh centuries the clergy assumed more and more of the responsibilities for the civil administration of the cities." (Peters, 106) By educating rulers and installing Church officials as civil rulers the Church sought to curb the baser instincts of barbarous Europe.

  1. Explain why Luther's protest spreads so quickly in Germany in the years up to ...

    Johannes Eck, showing that they had many similarities and therefore their punishments should be equally similar). As it was, Luther was never executed by the Church and only excommunicated after at least four years of campaigning. At first Frederick only supported Luther as a matter of principle: he wanted to

  2. Why were Luther's ideas unacceptable to the Catholic Church?

    should only be forgiven if the sinner confesses and is truly sorry and blessed by a priest. But obviously if one is dead then this would be near impossible and also because Jubilee indulgences were often sold in the market square and other such non-religious places.

  1. The unrest caused by the religious wars and thereformers exaggerated church with the devil ...

    In medieval Europe, church leaders condemned witchcraft as devil worship and as a dangerous heresy. Witchcraft is a belief that they considered contrary to church doctrine. That it was a practice of magic without the help of spirits (Middle Ages 168).

  2. St Germans Church in Cornwall

    We can tell that the porch was made by the Normans because it's rounded and the Normans where the only people to Make rounded porches. It is Chevron pattern which does show it is Norman, also we can say it is Norman because of the 7 orders of embellishment.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work