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David Hume is the main opponent of the design argument. Provide a summary of his main criticisms using the 6 headings:

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Introduction

18-01-2001. R.S. Mr Mort. Viki Nixon DFW13 David Hume is the main opponent of the design argument. Provide a summary of his main criticisms using the 6 headings: An unsound analogy Analogy is the 'logic leap' that William Paley argued was the reason for the existence of the Universe. From his watch theory, he discovered it must need a designer, and therefore something as complicated as the universe must need a designer, therefore it is God. However, Hume did not believe in God, and said Paley's analogy was weak. Hume says it could have all happened by chance. Hume said our world is not like the watch, since it holds so many different things, such as plants and animals. It is more organic than mechanical. If we see a watch we straight away know that it has taken one or more people to design it and mechanically put it together, but the universe is so much more complex, it will have needed more designers than the watch, and therefore destroying the idea of one God being the designer of the universe. ...read more.

Middle

he was not able to change the world now it has evil, or, - God is non-moral, and he may be all good and all powerful, but he does not want to change the world from what it is now. Other explanations for apparent order * Explain the Anthropic Argument.* The Anthropic argument is one of the various types of design argument thought up by Swinburne. This involves analogy. It argues that nature provides for the needs of intelligent beings. This intelligence - God. Swinburne uses the argument of probability. He asks which is the most probable reason for the order of the universe, by random chance or the work of a designer? He believes God is the simplest answer. The Anthropic argument argues that nature seems to plan in advance for the needs of animals and humans. It suggests mind or intelligence. Like the argument about analogy, it lends itself more to an inductive formulation than to a deductive one. This argued that given the findings of science, the most reasonable explanation for the character of the universe is God. ...read more.

Conclusion

William Paley: answers the criticisms that Hume had made of the design argument. He uses the analogy of the watch, suggest you come across a watch, you see it clearly that it did not happen by chance. The result must be of an intelligent mind, such as the universe. Paley is trying to prove god to be the designer. His aim is making things clearer to those who believe in God already. The argument to design is also referred to as the Anthropic argument (see above). Hume's criticisms are the main sector of this form of argument. The unsound analogy, God being non-moral, similar effects do not necessarily imply similar causes, etc. Further arguments against the argument include: * Darwinism, with its appeal for explanation, put pressure on the teleological argument. * Beginning with 'this world' and concludes with concepts that we have no experience, e.g. uncaused etc. * Whether statements of the argument are meaningful. * Arguments that there is no need to think of things in the universe operating in the light of any kind of purpose. * We have no reason to believe that the universe will continue to behave in an orderly way. ( * = left or unfinished because unsure of correct argument.) ...read more.

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