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Describe the Christian cosmology and the Muslim cosmology.

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Introduction

Science and Religion Ai) Describe the Christian cosmology and the Muslim cosmology. Cosmology is the theory of the origin and structure of the universe. There are two accounts of the creation in the Bible and both are written in Genesis. Genesis 2 is believed to have been written about 400 years after Genesis 1. This means Genesis is the work of an editor rather than an author. According to Genesis 1, God created the whole universe in six days. On day one He created heaven and earth, light and dark. On the second day He separated the earth from the sky. Day three, He created the dry land, plants and trees. On the fourth day, He made the sun, moon and stars. On day five, He created fish and birds and finally, on day six, he made animals and humans. According to Genesis 1:27, "God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them" Humans were also given authority over the world: "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the sky, over the livestock, over all the earth" (Genesis 1:26). The sequence of events in Genesis 2 is different. In this chapter, there are no days. First, God created the heavens and the earth. He then "formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being". Thirdly, God made trees grow out of the ground and formed the Garden of Eden. God then placed Adam in the Garden on Eden. Thinking Adam would be lonely, God made birds and animals and "whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name." Among all the animals, Adam found no suitable helper, so God put Adam to sleep, removed one of his ribs, and from the rib he created woman. ...read more.

Middle

Following from this, in the Bible, it states that God gave Adam the task of naming all the animals (Genesis 2:19). This also suggests that there was human existence from the beginning. Another contradiction is that some scientists suggest that there is no reason or plan to the universe. They say that, although this universe is very unique, it could all have happened another way. Christians and Muslims believe that the world has a purpose and everything in it was designed by God and has a reason. If Genesis and the traditional Muslim view are taken seriously, evolution is ruled out as they both say that all the different species were in existence from the beginning. It must be stressed that each Christian or Muslim have their own ideas about their religion and not all Christians and Muslims dispute the scientific cosmology. Science and Religion Aiii) Explain how the scientific cosmology can be seen as supporting religious belief Islam has always been closely linked to science. The modern view follows an evolutionary sequence and so the modern scientific theories do not create any problems for Muslims. In the Qur'an, there is a clear reference to the Big Bang: ''Are then, they who are bent on denying the truth not aware that the heavens and the earth were [once] one living entity, which We then Parted Asunder? - And [that] we made from water every living thing? Will they not then [begin to] believe'' surah 21:30. Not only does this apply to the Big Bang, but it also applies to other scientific theories. One is that every living thing is made from water, which is true since in all living cells, water is the major component. The other is that it indicates to the theory of Evolution. Modern Islam says that the creation happened in "ages" rather than "years". Also, the sequence of events, according to Modern Islam, follows a more evolutionary characteristic. ...read more.

Conclusion

Philosophers such as Epicurus and Nietzsche believed that everything happened by chance; there is no such thing as Divine Intervention. Epicurus taught that the basic constituents of the world are atoms, uncuttable bits of matter, flying through empty space, and he tried to explain all natural phenomena in atomic terms. Epicurus rejected the exsistence of the soul and he said that the gods have no influence on our lives. Nietzsche posed the question "Why is there suffering in the world?" Why would God choose to create such suffering? He argues that, if God is perfect, why did he create the tectonic plates. The tectonic plates, when moving, cause death and destruction with earthquakes, floods and volcanic eruptions. A clear example of this was the recent Tsunami. Many innocent poor people were killed and many ask why would God allow this to happen. When I started this coursework, I thought there was no connection between science and religion. But as I have worked on it, I have noticed that there are possibly more connections than not. Science quite often backs up religion. I think the Bible needs re-interpreting to fit modern day. Once this is done, there are few problems with science and religion contradicting each other. I believe that Genesis has been written to explain why the world began not how. This is because there is so much evidence for the Big Bang but that doesn't mean to say that the Big Bang was not part of God's plan. Because of this, I may be criticised as being a "doubting Thomas" and needing to see to believe. We as humans now understand more about how things happened and do not need to believe the Bible word for word. If we did where would we draw the line? I think that, as long as your religious belief and scientific belief do not contradict each other, as can sometimes happen, and you can back up your opinions with sufficient evidence, then it is perfectly feasible to a scientist and religious. ?? ?? ?? ?? Hannah Simpson FR/JS Year 11 Page 1 of 5 ...read more.

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