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"God may have separated the heavens from the earth - He did not separate astronomy from marine biology" (Jonathan Levy) - To what extent are the classifications separating areas of knowledge justified?

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Gianmarco Viale von Beckh Widmanstetter "God may have separated the heavens from the earth. He did not separate astronomy from marine biology." (Jonathan Levy) To what extent are the classifications separating Areas of Knowledge justified? 2002-2003 B.B.I.S Both astronomy and marine biology are autonomous areas of knowledge and both are sciences in the accepted definition of the term. Etymologically -this means the origin of the word- science or "scientia" meant knowledge. Today, it is accepted that science encompasses a very definite area of knowledge, but not all of it. To a certain extent, all areas of knowledge are associated between each other and sometimes and in some circumstances, the intrusion of one in the other, such as the influence of religion in Ethics, can be misleading. Classifications between these areas are man made, it is one of the methods that man has established in order to progress and further his knowledge, but it is only a tool. Classifications are arbitrary. While specialising in a certain topic, it is important to understand its context and place and its history in order to predict its development. Too much specialisation can lead to narrowness and lack of understanding. There is no significant distinction between common knowledge and areas of knowledge: It only means that one is the widening and rigorous organisation of the other. ...read more.


Another example is to be mentioned in order to understand the general method leading to the formulation of laws. When a scientist investigates the magnetic field given out from a wire, one or two variables (electrical current, resistance) are taken in account are that have an effect on it. If the scientist confirms his conclusions from his observations, he can move on to the next experiment where he could take into account other variables to broaden his investigation. Scientists take into account many variables using instruments that interact with each other, however, the fewer the variables, the better the experiments. The systematic - classificatory method deals basically with nomenclature and classification of names within biological sciences, art and psychology but has importance when considering living things and natural or aesthetic phenomena that are intimately related. The task of this method is to reunite all similar forms of individuals or phenomena into larger groups in order to obtain even larger groups that permit a complete classification. And so doing the very accurate description of each form is vital in order to reunite those who present the larger number of common characteristics. After this process of description a constructive phase take place, which is extremely complex due to the complexity of nature. ...read more.


show us that these distinctions are unstable. One example that can be mentioned is the picture "Guernica" painted by Pablo Picasso. It is enormous oil on canvas depicting a scene of tragedy and destruction. People and animals are crying and shouting, they are being bombed from the sky. Additionally, it can be seen that a horse is asking for help. The visual details of the picture can be better analysed only if the historical background is known. Guernica is a city in the province of Vizcaya in Spain, which was destroyed during the Spanish civil war from 1936 until 1939. If Guernica wouldn't have been bombarded the picture wouldn't exist. In brief, history and art combine in Guernica. As we have been seen beforehand, knowledge is interrelated. There are no definite boundaries between one area of knowledge and another. History can explain art and geography can explain economy, however, most people often do not associate facts and pictures or whichever type of information to the historical background and other relevant issues that may explain them better. The future holds novel instruments and tools for new discoveries in the micro and the macro spheres of nature. New areas of knowledge are apt to be recognized, identified and studied. Hundreds of new disciplines might arise and all will have the old philosophical trunk in common: the participation in creation, in its unity and its singularity to the planet Earth. ...read more.

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