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Ontological Argument for the existence of God

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Introduction

Ontological Argument for the existence of God Ontological justifications are a priori arguments based on pure logic and reason alone, excluding any sense of experience. Most of these arguments are based of deductive or 'modal' logic where the postulates or premises are based on the definition of the word then inferences to conclusion which is often irrefutable. The Ontological argument for the existence of God is a set of ontological proofs that attempt to use reason alone and 'analytic' statements to justify the existence of God. However, before going in-depth, we must differentiate between synthetic and analytic a priori statements. A synthetic statement is one where the predicate is not contained in the definition of a word (subject), thus, often known to be an inductive statement e.g. "Homosexuals are happy" However, we can see that this is not often the case and whether it's true or not we must ask every single homosexual there are before we can come to certainty. Analytic statements on the other hand contains a predicate which is already within a subject, thus we are simply extending the definition e.g. "Homosexuals are attracted to their own sex." Ontological arguments state that the existence of God is analytically true, which can be proven by simply the use of its own definition, by understanding the definition of God we can be certain of its existence. ...read more.

Middle

By way of example he invites us to think of an island which is perfect; if it is to be perfect then it must also intrinsically hold the value of existence and must therefore exists. Because, this was written during Anselm's period, it was possible for Anselm top reply to the refutations, he replied to the first objection by saying that the proof does not require a complete understanding of God, but only that we understand this much: that whatever else he may be, God is such that no greater being that can be conceived. In reply to Guanilo's second objection, Anselm says that God, unlike a perfect island is not thought of simply as the greatest thing of a certain type, or even the greatest thing of all, but as the being which nothing greater can be conceived. This latter concept can refer to only one thing; and that thing quite obviously is not the perfect island. However, there is an obvious flaw with the classical Ontological proof for the existence of God. For the fact that I am thinking of a being, thinking of it as existing necessarily, does not provide the slightest evidence that there actually is such a being, for the thought of a necessarily existing being is one thing and a necessarily being is another. ...read more.

Conclusion

Existence, however, is a quantifier, not a predicate, and you cannot simply define a non-existence entity to exist. We must know that logic and pure reason is not all there is to provide enough evidence for existence, in order to 'prove' we must also need empirical evidence. Logic alone is not always 'real' for a logical statement can contain two false premises and still come up with a true conclusion e.g. 1. A triangle is a 4 sided closed shape 2. This object is a 4 sided closed shape 3. Therefore it is a triangle Logic concludes that triangles are 4 sided closed shapes, and according to logic alone, it must therefore be true. However, we know with certainty that this is not the case; a triangle is a 3-sided closed shape whereas a 4-sided closed shape is known as a square. In fact, the most fundamental postulates of logic such as A=A does not necessarily hold much value in reality. If A=A is to be held true in reality then the world must be static, but, things are always changing and animals always evolving. Electrons hold dual properties as waves and particles and A=A cannot possibly hold true. To a lesser extent, A is often recognized as its pure form and concepts are often added to it. Thus we can conclude that (concept of) A = A is not necessarily true. Hence, the Ontological argument, with its irrefutable logical argument does not verify with reality. ...read more.

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